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De Gaulle, the Nation-State and Foreign Policy

  • P. G. Cerny

Extract

Valery has written that “A great man is one who leaves others after him in a state of embarrassment.” Certainly, the eighteen-month-old era of aprés de Gaulle has been characterized by an unexpected sense of confidence, not the oft-predicted chaos. But embarrassment persists. The enigma of de Gaulle himself remains. We have many and varied chronicles of his long political career. We have his speeches, his early books, his war memoirs and the first volume of his new Mémoires d'Espoir. But we have only begun the long process of sifting and reconciling the varied and contradictory facts at hand. The final analysis, as with so many other political leaders who left an ambiguous mark upon their contemporaries, will be left to the judgment of history—So subjective, yet so precious to de Gaulle himself.

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1 Quoted at the beginning of Chapter 1 (in part), in de Gaulle, Charles, Le Fil de l'Epée (Paris, 1932), p. 13.

2 Discours et Messages 1940–1969 (5 vols.: Paris, 1970); The Complete War Memoirs of Charles de Gaulle, (New York, 1967); Mémoires d'Espoir, I, “Le Renouveau 1958–1962” (Paris, 1970); La Discorde chez l'Ennemi (Paris, 1924); Le Fil de l'Epée; Vers l'Armée de Métier (Paris, 1934); La France et son Armée (Paris, 1938); Trois Études (Paris, 1945).

3 Chambraud, André, “De Gaulle: Une Histoire sans Mémoire,” L'Express, 10 12–18, 1970, pp. 1819.

4 The Complete War Memoirs, p. 335.

5 Lacouture, however, insists that the obsession with grandeur remains throughout, though mixed in with other terms: Lacouture, J., ed., Citations du Président de Gaulle (Paris, 1968). Strong criticisms of grandeur are in: Mengin, R., No Laurels for de Gaulle (New York, 1966); N. Leites, Médiocrité et Grandeur: Essai sur Charles de Gaulle, mimeo (no date); and Hassner, P., “Détente à la Française,” Modern World, VI (1968), 37. Strong defenses of the General are in: Hess, J. L., The Case for de Gaulle: An American Viewpoint (New York, 1968); and Pickles, William, “Making Sense of de Gaulle,” International Affairs, XLII, no. 3 (07, 1966), 410.

6 Cf. Kulski, W. W., De Gaulle and the World (Syracuse, 1966).

7 Chapman, Brian, “Prince and Player,” The Guardian, 05 8, 1969, p. 9.

8 Fidus, , “En Relisant Michel Debré,” Revue des Deux Mondes, 02 1, 1966, p. 354. Debré is notorious for his about-faces; others, like Soustelle, became opponents of the General; still others, like Pompidou, may be having the last laugh: cf. Alexandre, P., Le Duel de Gaulle-Pompidou (Paris, 1970).

9 Press conference, September 5, 1960, in Major Addresses, Statements, and Press Conferences of General Charles de Gaulle, May 19, 1958-January 31, 1964 (French Embassy Press and Information Service: New York, 1964), p. 84.

10 Le Fil de l'Epée.

11 Cf. Nachin, L., introduction to de Gaulle, C., Trois Études, p. x. Gaulle, De also speaks of the “creative spark” which cannot come from a rigid doctrine, in Vers l'Armé de Métier, p. 174.

12 “Gaullism: II—Style,” International Herald Tribune, May 8, 1968, p. 4.

13 The Complete War Memoirs, pp. 82–83.

14 Vers l'Armie de MStier, p. 160.

15 The Complete War Memoirs, p. 499.

16 Grosser, A., La Politique Extérieure de la Ve République (Paris, 1965), P. 39

17 Le Fil de l'Epée, p. 9.

18 Mémoires d'Espoir, I, 51.

19 Ibid., 49ff.

20 Hoffmann, Stanley, “De Gaulle's Memoirs: The Hero as History,” World Politics, XIII, no. 1 (10, 1960), 145.

21 Ibid., 151.

22 de Bayeux, Discours, 06 16, 1946, Discours et Messages, II, “Dans I'Attente,” 8.

23 The Complete War Memoirs, p. 3.

24 Mémoires d'Espoir, I, 40.

25 Hoffman, , “De Gaulle's Memoirs,” p. 155.

26 Vers l'Armé de Métier, pp. 169–170.

27 The Political Methods of General de Gaulle,” International Affairs, XXXVII, no. 1 (01, 1961), 22. For a more particular example, see Cerny, P. G., “The Fall of Two Presidents and Extra-parliamentary Opposition: France and the United States in 1968,” Government and Opposition, V, no. 3 (Summer, 1970), 292298.

28 Quoted in Leites, , Médiocrité et Grandeur, p. 81.

29 Mémoires d'Espoir, I, 34.

30 Cf. Crawley, A., De Gaulle (London, 1969), p. 21.

31 Cf. Tournoux, J.-R., Pétain and de Gaulle (London, 1966).

32 Johnson, Douglas, “The Political Principles of General de Gaulle,” International Affairs, XLI, no. 4 (10, 1965), 651.

33 Address, May 31, 1960, Major Addresses, p. 75.

34 Mémoires d'Espoir, I, 7–8.

35 Le Fil de l'Epée, p. 13.

36 Mémoires d'Espoir, I, 7.

37 Address, May 31, 1960, Major Addresses, p. 75.

38 Press conference, September 5, 1960, ibid., p. 91.

39 La France et son Armée, p. 9.

40 The Complete War Memoirs, p. 773.

41 Press conference, July 29, 1963, Major Addresses, p. 237.

42 Address, broadcast November 4, 1960, ibid., p. 100.

43 Address, broadcast, April 13, 1963, ibid., p. 223.

44 Inaugural address, January 8, 1959, ibid., p. 35.

45 Grosser, , La Politique Extérieure de la Ve République, p. 29.

46 Address, broadcast December 31, 1960, Major Addresses, p. 110.

47 Vers l'Armée de Métier, pp. 76–77.

48 Press conference, September 9, 1965, de France, Ambassade, Service de Presse et d'Information, London, p. 11.

49 Hamon, L., “Legs, Actualité et Finalité de la Politique Françhise,” Revue Française de Science Politique, XV, no. 5 (10, 1965), 991.

50 he Fil de l'Epée, pp. 92, 126; Vers l'Armée de Métier, p. 69.

52 Debné, M., “Science Politique et Action Politique,” Revue Française de Science Politique, XI, no. 2 (06, 1961), 801.

53 Interview with Michel Droit, broadcast June 7, 1968, de France, Ambassade, Service de Presse et d'Infonnation, London, p. 5.

54 La Discorde chez l'Ennemi, p. viii.

55 Ibid., p. X.

56 Press conference, February 21, 1965, de France, Ambassade, Service de Presse et d'Information, London, p. 5.

57 Le Fil de l'Epée, pp. 48–54.

58 Ibid., p. 66.

59 Press conference, October 28, 1966, de France, Ambassade, Service de Presse et d'Information, London, p. 2; Speech at Moscow University, June 22, 1966, in La Politique Etrangére de la France, Textes et Documents, 1966, “La Documentation Françhise,” (Paris, 1967), p. 104.

60 Press conference, January 31, 1964, Major Addresses, p. 245.

61 Cf. Aristotle, , Politics, III, 1280b.

92 This is true of allied Gaullist concepts such as self-determination, or of the necessary moral factors for political integration in Europe: cf. Press conference, September 5, 1960, Major Addresses, pp. 92–93.

63 Press conference, September 5, 1960, Major Addresses, p. 85.

64 Address, May 3 1, 1960, ibid., p. 78.

65 Interview with Réalités-Entreprises, October 18, 1966, La Politique Etrangére de la France, p. 166.

66 Combat, August, 24, 1944, quoted in Serfaty, S., France, De Gaulle and Europe (Baltimore, 1968), p. 85.

67 Le Fil de l'Epée, pp. 76ff; Vers l'Armée de Métier, p. 175.

68 Pickles, D., The Uneasy Entente (London, 1966); also see Grosser, A., “General de Gaulle and the Foreign Policy of the Fifth Republic,” International Affairs, XXXIX, no. 2 (04, 1963), 200201.

69 Press conference, September 5, 1960, Major Addresses, p. 93.

70 Press conference, September 9, 1965, de France, Ambassade, Service de Presse et d'Information, London, p. 9.

71 Press conference, November 10, 1959, Major Addresses, p. 57; cf. Grosser, , La Politique Extérieure de la Ve République, p. 173.

72 Talk to a group of representatives of foreign banks in Paris, May 22, 1967, La Politique Etrangère de la France, Textes et Documents, 1967, premier semestre, p. 99.

73 De Gaulle and the World, pp. 76–77.

74 Cygielman, V., “L'Explosion Nationaliste,” Le Soir (Brussels), 03 7, 1968, pp. 1, 6; cf. also de Gaulle's remarks on self-determination in Africa in his press conference, November 10, 1959, Major Addresses, p. 65.

75 Cf. Reith, Lester Pearson's lectures, The Guardian, 12 9, 1968, p. 3.

76 Cf. Girardet, R., “Autour de l'ldéologie Nationaliste: Perspectives de Recherches,” Revue Française de Science Politique, XV, no. 3 (06, 1965), 423; P. Hassner, “Nationalisme et Relations Internationales,” ibid., 499; S. Hoffmann, “De Gaulle's Memoirs”; Malraux, A., “Une Présence Humaine et Généreuse,” Nouuelle Frontiére, V (01, 1964), 3.

77 See particularly Kedourie, E., Nationalism (London, 1966).

78 Cited in Girardet, , op. cit., 426427, from Grosse Brockhaus (16th ed., 1955).

79 Serfaty, , France, de Gaulle, and Europe, p. 114.

80 Hoffmann, , “De Gaulle's Memoirs,” p. 155.

81 Vers l'Armée de Métier, p. 116.

82 Mémoires d'Espoir, I, 7.

83 Idem (my italics).

84 La France et son Armée, p. 270.

85 Pompidou, G., speech to the Institut des Hautes Études de Défense Nationale, 11 3, 1967, La Politique Etrangère de la France, Textes et Documents, 1967, deuxième semestre, p. 129.

86 De Gaulle, speech at Moscow University, June 22, 1966, loc. cit.

87 April 14, 1966, in La Politique Etrangère …, 1966, p. 70.

88 Pickles, Dorothy, The Uneasy Entente, p. 82.

89 Vers l'Armée de Métier, p. 175.

90 La Discorde chez l'Ennemi, p. x. The Complete War Memoirs, p. 3.

91 Cf. Nordlinger, E. A., “Democratic Stability and Instability: The French Case,” World Politics, XVIII, no. 1 (10, 1965), 127.

92 Le Fil de l'Épée, p. 27.

93 Mémoires d'Espoir, I, 145.

94 de Bayeux, Discours, Discours, II, 8.

95 The Complete War Memoirs, p. 3.

96 Cf. Cerny, P. G., The French Presidency, unpublished honors thesis, Kenyon College (1967).

97 Sulzberger, C. L., “Gaullism: I—Aims,” International Herald Tribune, 05 6, 1968, p. 4.

98 Vers l'Armée de Métier, p. 33; Press conference, September 5, 1960, Major Addresses, p. 92; Speech, May 8, 1961, ibid., p. 139.

99 New Year's Message, broadcast December 29, 1961, ibid., p. 157.

100 Kulski, , op. cit., pp. 7274; Grosser, , La Politique Extérieure de la Ve République, pp. 79, 167; “French Cultural Promotion Abroad,” Ambassade de France, London, document B/39/10/7; Dollot, L., La France dans le Monde Actuel (Paris, 1964); Manue, G. R., “Réalités et Perspectives de la Francophonie,” Revue de Défense Nationale, XXIII, no. 2 (02, 1967), 223; R. P. Calvez, “Les Raisons Spirituelles de l'Aide des Pays Plus Developpés aux Pays Moins Developpés,” ibid., XXIV, no. 8 (October, 1968), 1438.

101 Billotte, P., “La France et la Puissance Mondiale,” Revue des Deux Mondes, 09 1, 1966, p. 3; Semidei, M., “De l'Empire à la Decolonisation à Travers les Manuels Scolaires Français,” Revue Française de Science Politique, XVI, no. 1 (02, 1966), 56; Hayter, Teresa, “French Aid to Africa—Its Scope and Achievements,” International Affairs, XLI, no. 2 (04, 1965), 236; Mialet, J., “La Coopération dans la Politique Étrangère de la France,” Revue Juridique et Politique, XXII, no. 3 (0709, 1968), 811.

102 Press conference, November 10, 1959, Major Addresses, p. 67.

103 Press conference, January 31, 1964, ibid., p. 252.

104 I regret that lack of space prevents me from dealing with each level of policy in greater detail.

De Gaulle, the Nation-State and Foreign Policy

  • P. G. Cerny

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