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14C and Other Radionuclides in Impermeable Graphite Material Waste form Long Term Behavior

  • E Márquez (a1), G Piña (a1), J Fachinger (a2) and J L Leganés (a3)

Abstract

The radiocarbon (14C) content of irradiated graphite is the most important problem for the management of Spanish irradiated graphite (Vandellós I NPP) as L&ILW, due to this material exceeding the maximum 14C inventory for the C.A. El Cabril repository. Therefore, the encapsulation of graphite in an impermeable matrix and making an appropriate waste form are indicated as potential management options to be studied. The conversion of the graphite to a long-term stable glass matrix, called IGM (impermeable graphite matrix), uses a long-term stable inorganic binder which additionally encloses the graphite pore system. The world’s first IGM samples made with irradiated graphite have been manufactured in CIEMAT facilities. The durability of the matrix is investigated in leaching experiments in deionized water and granitic bentonite water. The results show that ∼0.05% of 14C is leached. A species of organic carbon was found as formate and oxalate (∼10–1 mg/L). CO was detected as volatile specie in both media in the first leaching steps; for deionized water (∼3.101 mg/L) and in granitic bentonite water (ranging 1.101–3.101 mg/L). These low values demonstrated the durability of the IGM glass matrix for final disposal.

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Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: evamaria.marquez@ciemat.es.

Footnotes

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Selected Papers from the European Commission CAST (CArbon-14 Source Term) Project—A Summary of the Main Results from the Final Symposium

Footnotes

References

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Carpentiero, R, Bienvenu, P, De la Huebra, AG, Dale, C, Grec, D, Gallego, C, Rodriguez, M, Vanderlinden, F, Voors, PI, Welbergen, J, Maz, R, Fazs, J. 2004. Leaching methods for conditioned radioactive waste. Report WG-B-02.
Cobos, J, Gutiérrez, L, Rodríguez, N, Iglesias, E, Piña, G, Magro, E. 2008. Irradiated graphite samples bulk analyses at CIEMAT. CARBOWASTE report (T.3.2.4).
Fachinger, J, Grosse, KH, Seemann, R, Hrovat, M. 2011. Impermeable graphite: A new development for embedding radioactive waste. Proceedings of ICAPP. Paper 11267.
ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Long-Term Leach Testing of Solidified Radioactive Waste Forms. ISO 6961-1982(E). Patent EP2347422 ALD-France.
Nichols, PF, Woodruff, EM. 1962. Nuclear Properties. Chapter 4. In: Nightingale RE, editor. Nuclear Graphite. p 64–84.

Keywords

14C and Other Radionuclides in Impermeable Graphite Material Waste form Long Term Behavior

  • E Márquez (a1), G Piña (a1), J Fachinger (a2) and J L Leganés (a3)

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