1Conway, JM, Ingwersen, LA, Vinyard, BT, Moshfegh, AJ. Effectiveness of the US Department of Agriculture 5-step multiple-pass method in assessing food intake in obese and nonobese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 77: 1171–8.
2Baxter, SD, Smith, AF, Litaker, MS, Guinn, CH, Shaffer, NM, Baglio, ML, et al. . Recency affects reporting accuracy of children's dietary recalls. Annals of Epidemiology 2004; 14: 385–90.
3Thompson, FE, Subar, AF, Brown, CC, Smith, AF, Sharbaugh, CO, Jobe, JB, et al. . Cognitive research enhances the accuracy of food frequency questionnaire reports: results of an experimental validation study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002; 102: 212–8, .
4Sevak, L, Mangtani, P, McCormack, V, Bhakta, D, Kassam-Khamis, T, dos Santos Silva, I. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess macro- and micro-nutrient intake among South Asians in the United Kingdom. European Journal of Nutrition 2004; 43: 160–8.
5Heitmann, BL, Lissner, L. Can adverse effects of dietary fat intake be overestimated as a consequence of dietary fat underreporting? Public Health Nutrition 2005; 8: 1322–7.
6Subar, AF, Kipnis, V, Troiano, RP, Midthune, D, Schoeller, DA, Bingham, S, et al. . Using biomarkers to evaluate the extent of dietary misreporting in a large sample of adults: The OPEN Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003; 158: 1–13.
7Baranowski, T, Islam, N, Baranowski, J, Cullen, KW, Myres, D, Marsh, T, et al. . The Food Intake Recording Software System is valid among fourth-grade children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002; 102: 380–5.
8Smith, AF. Cognitive processes in long-term dietary recall. Vital and Health Statistics 1991; 6(4). Also available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_06/sr06_004.pdf. Accessed 31 January 2007.
9Smith, AF. Concerning the suitability of recordkeeping for validating and generalizing about reports of health-related information. Review of General Psychology 1999; 3: 133–50.
10Webb, EJ, Campbell, DT, Schwartz, RD, Sechrest, L. Unobtrusive Measures: Nonreactive Research in the Social Sciences. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, 1966.
11Baxter, SD, Thompson, WO, Davis, HC, Johnson, MH. Impact of gender, ethnicity, meal component, and time interval between eating and reporting on accuracy of fourth-graders' self-reports of school lunch. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1997; 97: 1293–8.
12Baxter, SD, Thompson, WO, Litaker, MS, Frye, FHA, Guinn, CH. Low accuracy and low consistency of fourth-graders' school breakfast and school lunch recalls. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002; 102: 386–95.
13Baxter, SD, Smith, AF, Guinn, CH, Thompson, WO, Litaker, MS, Baglio, ML, et al. . Interview format influences the accuracy of children's dietary recalls validated with observations. Nutrition Research 2003; 23: 1537–46.
14Baxter, SD, Thompson, WO, Smith, AF, Litaker, MS, Yin, Z, Frye, FHA, et al. . Reverse versus forward order reporting and the accuracy of fourth-graders' recalls of school breakfast and school lunch. Preventive Medicine 2003; 36: 610–4.
15Baxter, SD, Thompson, WO, Litaker, MS, Guinn, CH, Frye, FHA, Baglio, ML, et al. . Accuracy of fourth-graders' dietary recalls of school breakfast and school lunch validated with observations: in-person versus telephone interviews. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2003; 35: 124–34.
16Domel, SB, Thompson, WO, Baranowski, T, Smith, AF. How children remember what they have eaten. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1994; 94: 1267–72.
17Baxter, SD, Thompson, WO, Davis, HC. Prompting methods affect the accuracy of children's school lunch recalls. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2000; 100: 911–8.
18McPherson, RS, Hoelscher, DM, Alexander, M, Scanlon, KS, Serdula, MK. Dietary assessment methods among school-aged children: validity and reliability. Preventive Medicine 2000; 31: S11–33.
19Crawford, PB, Obarzanek, E, Morrison, J, Sabry, ZI. Comparative advantage of 3-day food records over 24-hour recall and 5-day food frequency validated by observation of 9- and 10-year-old girls. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1994; 94: 626–30.
20Lytle, LA, Murray, DM, Perry, CL, Eldridge, AL. Validating fourth-grade students' self-report of dietary intake: results from the 5-A-Day Power Plus program. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1998; 98: 570–2.
21Lytle, LA, Nichaman, MZ, Obarzanek, E, Glovsky, E, Montgomery, D, Nicklas, T, et al. . Validation of 24-hour recalls assisted by food records in third-grade children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1993; 93: 1431–6.
22Samuelson, G. An epidemiological study of child health and nutrition in a northern Swedish county. II. Methodological study of the recall technique. Nutrition & Metabolism 1970; 12: 321–40.
23Todd, KS, Kretsch, MJ. Accuracy of the self-reported dietary recall of new immigrant and refugee children. Nutrition Research 1986; 6: 1031–43.
24Warren, JM, Henry, CJK, Livingstone, MBE, Lightowler, HJ, Bradshaw, SM, Perwaiz, S. How well do children aged 5–7 years recall food eaten at school lunch? Public Health Nutrition 2003; 6: 41–7.
25Weber, JL, Lytle, L, Gittelsohn, J, Cunningham-Sabo, L, Heller, K, Anliker, JA, et al. . Validity of self-reported dietary intake at school meals by American Indian children: The Pathways Study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004; 104: 746–52.
26Moreira, P, Padez, C, Mourao, I, Rosado, V. Dietary calcium and body mass index in Portuguese children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005; 59: 861–7.
27Wiley, AS. Does milk make children grow? Relationships between milk consumption and height in NHANES 1999–2002. American Journal of Human Biology 2005; 17: 425–41.
28Nicklas, TA, Morales, M, Linares, A, Yang, S-J, Baranowski, T, De Moor, C, et al. . Children's meal patterns have changed over a 21-year period: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004; 104: 753–61.
29Champagne, CM, Bogle, ML, McGee, BB, Yadrick, K, Allen, HR, Kramer, TR, et al. . Dietary intake in the lower Mississippi delta region: results from the Foods of our Delta Study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004; 104: 199–207.
30Rogers, JL, Howard, KI, Vessey, JT. Using significance tests to evaluate equivalence between two experimental groups. Psychological Bulletin 1993; 113: 553–65.
31Tryon, WT. Evaluating statistical difference, equivalence, and indeterminacy using inferential confidence intervals: an integrated alternative method of conducting null hypothesis statistical tests. Psychological Methods 2001; 6: 371–86.
32Seaman, MA, Serlin, RC. Equivalence confidence intervals for two-group comparisons of means. Psychological Methods 1998; 3: 403–11.
33Feinstein, AR. Principles of Medical Statistics. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, 2002.
34Frick, RW. Accepting the null hypothesis. Memory & Cognition 1995; 23: 132–8.
35Simons-Morton, BG, Forthofer, R, Huang, IW, Baranowski, T, Reed, DB, Fleishman, R. Reliability of direct observation of school children's consumption of bag lunches. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1992; 92: 219–21.
36Baglio, ML, Baxter, SD, Guinn, CH, Thompson, WO, Shaffer, NM, Frye, FHA. Assessment of interobserver reliability in nutrition studies that use direct observation of school meals. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004; 104: 1385–93.
37Shaffer, NM, Baxter, SD, Thompson, WO, Baglio, ML, Guinn, CH, Frye, FHA. Quality control for interviews to obtain dietary recalls from children for research studies. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004; 104: 1577–85.
38Hatcher, L, Stepanski, EJ. A Step-by-step Approach to Using the SAS System for Univariate and Multivariate Statistics. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, 1994; .
39SAS Institute. SAS/STAT User's Guide, Version 8. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, 1999; .
40Rebro, SM, Patterson, RE, Kristal, AR, Cheney, CL. The effect of keeping food records on eating patterns. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1998; 98: 1163–5.
41Cohen, J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988.
42Cohen, J. A power primer. Psychological Bulletin 1992; 112: 155–9.
43Simons-Morton, BG, Baranowski, T. Observation in assessment of children's dietary practices. Journal of School Health 1991; 61: 198–200.