Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A systematic review of iodine deficiency among women in the UK

  • Huiqing Jiang (a1), Hilary J Powers (a1) and Giulia S Rossetto (a1)

Abstract

Objective

The present study reviewed the literature on iodine status among women of childbearing age and pregnant women in the UK. Particular attention was given to study quality and methods used to assess iodine status.

Design

A systematic review was conducted to examine the literature and critically evaluate study design.

Setting

Studies were identified in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Ovid MEDLINE databases, as well as from secondary references.

Participants

Women of childbearing age or pregnant, living in the UK.

Results

Fifty-seven articles were identified and twelve articles were selected, including a total of 5283 women. Nine studies conducted urinary iodine assessments, three studies conducted dietary assessments only, and seven studies classified their target population as iodine deficient according to WHO criteria.

Conclusions

No single study from the selected articles could produce nationally representative results regarding the prevalence of iodine deficiency among the female population in the UK. Consideration of the evidence as a whole suggests that women of childbearing age and pregnant women in the UK are generally iodine insufficient. Further large-scale research is required for more accurate and reliable evidence on iodine status in the UK.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email h.j.powers@sheffield.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1. Zimmermann, MB (2009) Iodine deficiency. Endocr Rev 30, 376408.
2. Fierro-Benitez, R, Cazar, R, Stanbury, JB et al. (1988) Effects on school children of prophylaxis of mothers with iodized oil in an area of iodine deficiency. J Endocrinol Invest 11, 327335.
3. Andersson, M, De Benoist, B, Darnton-Hill, I et al. (2007) Iodine Deficiency in Europe: A Continuing Public Health Problem: Geneva: WHO.
4. Bath, SC & Rayman, MP (2015) A review of the iodine status of UK pregnant women and its implications for the offspring. Environ Geochem Health 37, 619629.
5. Zimmermann, MB (2010) Iodine deficiency in industrialised countries. Proc Nutr Soc 69, 133143.
6. De Benoist, B, McLean, E, Andersson, M et al. (2008) Iodine deficiency in 2007: global progress since 2003. Food Nutr Bull 29, 195202.
7. Phillips, DI (1997) Iodine, milk, and the elimination of endemic goitre in Britain: the story of an accidental public health triumph. J Epidemiol Community Health 51, 391393.
8. Vanderpump, MPJ, Lazarus, JH, Smyth, PP et al. (2011) Iodine status of UK schoolgirls: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet 377, 20072012.
9. Ovesen, L & Boeing, H (2002) The use of biomarkers in multicentric studies with particular consideration of iodine, sodium, iron, folate and vitamin D. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, Suppl. 2, S12S17.
10. Vejbjerg, P, Knudsen, N, Perrild, H et al. (2009) Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies. Thyroid 19, 12811286.
11. World Health Organization/UNICEF/International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (2007) Assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Monitoring their Elimination: A Guide for Programme Managers: Geneva: WHO.
12. UNICEF (2018) Guidance on the Monitoring of Salt Iodization Programmes and Determination of Population Iodine Status. New York: UNICEF.
13. Bath, SC, Walter, A, Taylor, A et al. (2014) Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status. Br J Nutr 111, 16221631.
14. Bath, SC, Sleeth, ML, McKenna, M et al. (2014) Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter. Br J Nutr 112, 17151723.
15. Combet, E & Lean, ME (2014) Validation of a short food frequency questionnaire specific for iodine in UK females of childbearing age. J Hum Nutr Diet 27, 599605.
16. Bath, SC, Furmidge-Owen, VL, Redman, CW et al. (2015) Gestational changes in iodine status in a cohort study of pregnant women from the United Kingdom: season as an effect modifier. Am J Clin Nutr 101, 11801187.
17. Knight, BA, Shields, BM, He, X et al. (2017) Iodine deficiency amongst pregnant women in South-West England. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 86, 451455.
18. Pearce, EN, Lazarus, JH, Smyth, PP et al. (2010) Perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure and thyroid function in first-trimester pregnant women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 32073215.
19. Bath, SC, Steer, CD, Golding, J et al. (2013) Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Lancet 382, 331337.
20. Roberts, C, Steer, T, Maplethorpe, N et al. (2018) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Results from Years 7 and 8 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2014/2015–2015/2016). London: Public Health England.
21. Liberati, A, Altman, DG, Tetzlaff, J et al. (2009) The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. J Clin Epidemiol 62, e1e34.
22. von Elm, E, Altman, DG, Egger, M et al. (2008) The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. J Clin Epidemiol 61, 344349.
23. Kibirige, MS, Hutchison, S, Owen, CJ et al. (2004) Prevalence of maternal dietary iodine insufficiency in the north east of England: implications for the fetus. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 89, F436F439.
24. Mouratidou, T, Ford, F & Fraser, RB (2006) Validation of a food-frequency questionnaire for use in pregnancy. Public Health Nutr 9, 515522.
25. Rohner, F, Zimmermann, M, Jooste, P et al. (2014) Biomarkers of nutrition for development – iodine review. J Nutr 144, issue 8, 1322S1342S.
26. Konig, F, Andersson, M, Hotz, K et al. (2011) Ten repeat collections for urinary iodine from spot samples or 24-hour samples are needed to reliably estimate individual iodine status in women. J Nutr 141, 20492054.
27. Haddow, JE, McClain, MR, Palomaki, GE et al. (2007) Urine iodine measurements, creatinine adjustment, and thyroid deficiency in an adult United States population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 10191022.
28. Knudsen, N, Christiansen, E, Brandt-Christensen, M et al. (2000) Age-and sex-adjusted iodine/creatinine ratio. A new standard in epidemiological surveys? Evaluation of three different estimates of iodine excretion based on casual urine samples and comparison to 24 h values. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 361363.
29. Andersen, S, Karmisholt, J, Pedersen, KM et al. (2008) Reliability of studies of iodine intake and recommendations for number of samples in groups and in individuals. Br J Nutr 99, 813818.
30. Bourdoux, P (1998) Evaluation of the iodine intake: problems of the iodine/creatinine ratio – comparison with iodine excretion and daily fluctuations of iodine concentration. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 106, Suppl. 3, S17S20.
31. Kesteloot, H & Joossens, JV (1996) On the determinants of the creatinine clearance: a population study. J Hum Hypertens 10, 245249.
32. Pearce, EN, Lazarus, JH, Smyth, PP et al. (2009) Urine test strips as a source of iodine contamination. Thyroid 19, 919.
33. Rasmussen, LB, Ovesen, L, Bulow, I et al. (2002) Dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion in a Danish population: effect of geography, supplements and food choice. Br J Nutr 87, 6169.
34. O’Kane, SM, Pourshahidi, LK, Farren, KM et al. (2016) Iodine knowledge is positively associated with dietary iodine intake among women of childbearing age in the UK and Ireland. Br J Nutr 116, 17281735.
35. Zimmermann, MB & Andersson, M (2012) Assessment of iodine nutrition in populations: past, present, and future. Nutr Rev 70, 553570.
36. Combet, E, Bouga, M, Pan, B et al. (2015) Iodine and pregnancy – a UK cross-sectional survey of dietary intake, knowledge and awareness. Br J Nutr 114, 108117.
37. Derbyshire, E, Davies, GJ, Costarelli, V et al. (2009) Habitual micronutrient intake during and after pregnancy in Caucasian Londoners. Matern Child Nutr 5, 19.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Jiang et al. supplementary material
Jiang et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (66 KB)
66 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed