Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Supplemented zinc does not alter mood in healthy older European adults – a randomised placebo-controlled trial: the Zenith study

  • Barbara J Stewart-Knox (a1), Gordon Rae (a2), Ellen EA Simpson (a2), Chris McConville (a2), Jacqueline O’Connor (a1), Angela Polito (a3), Maud Andriollo-Sanchez (a4), Charles Coudray (a5) and JJ Strain (a1)...

Abstract

Objective

Older people are vulnerable to zinc deficiency, which may impact upon their mood. This randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention study aimed to investigate the effect of oral zinc gluconate supplementation (15 mg/d; 30 mg/d; and placebo) on subjective mood (affect) in older Europeans.

Subjects

Healthy volunteers (n 387) aged 55–87 years were recruited.

Setting

Volunteers in Rome (Italy; n 108) and Grenoble (France; n 91) were aged 70–87 years and those in Coleraine (Northern Ireland; n 93) and Clermont-Ferrand (France; n 95) were aged 55–70 years.

Design

Mood was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale on four occasions per day over 4 d at baseline, 3 and 6 months post-intervention.

Results

Mixed ANOVA indicated that neither positive nor negative affect altered in response to zinc (15 mg/d or 30 mg/d) compared to placebo in either the 55–70 years or the ≥70 years age group.

Conclusions

These results suggest that zinc does not benefit mood in healthy older people.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Supplemented zinc does not alter mood in healthy older European adults – a randomised placebo-controlled trial: the Zenith study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Supplemented zinc does not alter mood in healthy older European adults – a randomised placebo-controlled trial: the Zenith study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Supplemented zinc does not alter mood in healthy older European adults – a randomised placebo-controlled trial: the Zenith study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email b.knox@ulster.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1.Wanless, D (2004) Securing Good Health for the Whole Population: Final Report. London: HM Treasury; available at http://www.hmtreasury.gov.uk/consultations and legislation/wanless/consultwanless04final.cfm
2.Hambidge, M (2000) Human zinc deficiency. J Nutr 130, 5S Suppl., 1344S1349S.
3.Frederickson, CJ, Won Suh, S, Silva, D et al. (2000) Importance of zinc in the central nervous system: the zinc-containing neuron. J Nutr 130, 5S Suppl., 1471S1483S.
4.Colvin, RA, Davis, N, Nipper, RW et al. (2000) Zinc transport in the brain: routes of zinc influx and efflux in neurons. J Nutr 130, 5S Suppl., 1484S1487S.
5.Szewczyk, B, Poleszak, E, Wlaz, P et al. (2009) The involvement of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant effect of zinc in the forced swim test. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33, 323329.
6.Matias, CM, Saggau, P & Quinta-Ferreira, ME (2010) Blockade of presynaptic K ATP channels reduces the zinc-mediated posttetanic depression at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Brain Res 1320, 2227.
7.Watanabe, M, Tamano, H, Kikuchi, T et al. (2010) Susceptibility to stress in young rats after 2-week zinc deprivation. Neurochem Int 56, 410416.
8.Sowa-Kucma, M, Legutko, B, Szewczyk, B et al. (2008) Antidepressant-like activity of zinc: further behavioral and molecular evidence. J Neural Transm 115, 16211628.
9.Takeda, A & Tamado, H (2009) Insight into zinc signaling from dietary zinc deficiency. Brain Res Rev 62, 3344.
10.Tamano, H, Kan, F, Kawamura, M et al. (2009) Behavior in the forced swim test and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus in young rats after 2-week zinc deprivation. Neurochem Int 55, 536541.
11.Takeda, A (2009) Behavior in the forced swim test and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus in young rats after 2-week zinc deprivation. Neurochem Int 55, 536541.
12.Cichy, A, Sowa-Kucma, M, Legutko, B et al. (2009) Zinc-induced adaptive changes in NMDA/glutamatergic and serontonergic receptors. Pharmacol Rep 61, 11841191.
13.Barrondo, S & Salles, J (2009) Allosteric modulation of 5-HT1A receptors by zinc: binding sites. Neuropharmacology 56, 455462.
14.Michel, TM, Frangou, S, Thiemeyer, D et al. (2007) Evidence for oxidative stress in the frontal cortex in patients with recurrent depressive disorder – a post-mortem study. Psychiatry Res 151, 145150.
15.Kaplan, BJ, Field, CJ, Crawford, SG et al. (2007) Vitamins, minerals and mood. Psychol Bull 133, 747760.
16.Marcellini, F, Giuli, C, Papa, R et al. (2006) Zinc status, psychological and nutritional assessment in old people recruited in five European studies: Zincage study. Biogerontology 7, 339345.
17.Siwek, MS, Wrobel, A, Dudek, D et al. (2005) The role of zinc in the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders. Psychiatr Pol 39, 899909.
18.Bodnor, LM & Wisner, KL (2005) Nutrition and depression: implications for improving mental health among childbearing aged women. Biol Psychiatry 58, 679685.
19.Maes, M, de Vos, N, Demedts, P et al. (1999) Lower serum zinc in major depression in relation to changes in serum acute phase proteins. J Affect Disord 56, 189194.
20.Maes, M, Vandoolaeghe, E, Neels, H et al. (1997) Lower serum zinc in major depression is a sensitive marker of treatment resistance and of the immune/inflammatory response in the illness. Soc Biol Psychiatry 42, 349358.
21.Siwek, M, Dudek, D, Paul, IA et al. (2009) Zinc supplementation augments efficacy of imipramine in treatment resistant patients. J Affect Disord 118, 187195.
22.Walsh, WJ, Isaacson, HR, Rehman, F et al. (1997) Elevated blood copper/zinc ratios in assaultive young males. Physiol Behav 62, 327329.
23.Little, KY, Castellanos, X, Humphries, LL et al. (1989) Altered zinc metabolism in mood disorder patients. Biol Psychiatry 26, 646648.
24.Hanson, CR, Malecha, M, Mackenzie, TB et al. (1982) Copper and zinc deficiencies in association with depression and neurological findings. Biol Psychiatry 18, 395401.
25.Maes, M, Neels, H, Demedts, P et al. (1997) Lower serum zinc in major depression is a sensitive marker. Biol Psychiatry 42, 349353.
26.Levenson, CW (2006) Zinc: the new antidepressant? Nutr Rev 64, 3942.
27.Hwang, JY, Lee, SE, Kim, SH et al. (2010) Psychological distress is associated with inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 779785.
28.Sawada, T & Yokoi, K (2010) Effect of zinc supplementation on mood states in young women: a pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 331333.
29.Seiler, WO (1999) Nutritional status in ill elderly subjects. Z Gerontol Geriatr 32, 711.
30.Haase, H, Mocchegiani, E & Rink, L (2006) Correlation between zinc status and immune function in the elderly. Biogerontology 7, 421428.
31.Seiler, WO, Itin, P & Stahelin, HB (2002) Zinc deficiency, a problem of old age frequently not recognised. Ernahrungsschau 49, 260.
32.Rybka, J, Kedziora-Kornatowska, K, Kedziora, J et al. (2009) Immunosenescence and late life depression. Cent Eur J Immunol 34, 271275.
33.Maes, M, de Vos, N, Wauters, A et al. (1999) Inflammatory markers in younger vs elderly normal volunteers. J Psychiatr Res 33, 397405.
34.Reichies, FM, Felsenberg, D, Gessner, R et al. (1998) Age and dementia effect on neuropsychological test performance in very old age-influence of risk factors for dementia. J Neural Transm 54, 6976.
35.Drewnowski, A & Shulz, JM (2001) Impact of aging on eating behaviour, food choices, nutrition and health status. J Nutr Health Aging 5, 7579.
36.CidRuzafa, J, Caulfield, LE, Barron, Y et al. (1999) Nutrient intakes and adequacy among an older population on the eastern shore of Maryland. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 546571.
37.Kant, AK & Schatzkin, A (1999) Relation of age and self reported medical condition status with dietary nutrient intake in the US population. J Am Coll Nutr 18, 6976.
38.Webb, KL, Schofield, WN, Lazerus, R et al. (1999) Prevalence and socio-demographic predictors of dietary goal attainment in an older population. Aust NZ J Public Health 23, 578584.
39.Cole, MG & Dendukuri, N (2003) Risk factors for depression among elderly community subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry 160, 11471156.
40.Simpson, EEA, McConville, C, Rae, G et al. (2008) Salivary cortisol, stress and mood in healthy older adults: the Zenith Study. Biol Psychol 78, 19.
41.Ostir, GV, Ottenbacher, KJ & Markides, KS (2004) Onset of frailty in older adults and the protective role of positive affect. Psychol Aging 19, 402408.
42.Goh, LY, Vitry, AI, Semple, SJ et al. (2009) Self-medication with over-the-counter drugs and complementary medications in South Australia’s elderly population. BMC Comple Alt Med 9, 42.
43.World Health Organization (1995) Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. WHO Technical Report Series no. 854. Geneva: WHO.
44.Folstein, MF, Folstein, E & McHugh, PR (1975) Mini Mental State: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12, 189198.
45.Yesavage, JA, Brink, TL, Rose, TL et al. (1983) Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 17, 3749.
46.Almeida, OP & Almeida, SA (1999) Short versions of the geriatric depression scale: a study of their validity for the diagnosis of a major depressive episode according to ICD-10 and DSM IV. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 14, 858865.
47.Polito, A, Meunier, N, Andriollo-Sanchez, M et al. (2005) Screening and recruitment procedure of late-middle aged and older subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, S8S12.
48.Gibson, RS (2005) Principles of Nutritional Assessment, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
49.Miller, LV, Krebs, NF & Hambridge, MK (2000) Development of a compartmental model of human zinc metabolism: identifiability and multiple studies analyses. Am J Physiol Regul Intergr Comp Physiol 279, R11671R11684.
50.Anriollo-Sanchez, M, Hininger-Favier, I, Meunier, N et al. (2005) Zinc intake and status in middle-aged and older European Subjects: the Zenith study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, S31S36.
51.Polito, A, Intorre, F, Andriollo-Sanchez, M et al. (2005) Estimation of intake and status of vitamin A, vitamin E and folate in older European adults: the Zenith study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, S42S47.
52.Watson, D, Clarke, LA & Tellegen, A (1988) Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scale. J Pers Soc Psychol 47, 10631070.
53.Watson, D & Tellegen, A (1985) Towards a consensual structure of mood. Psychol Bull 98, 219235.
54.Watson, D & Clark, LA (1992) On traits and temperament: general and specific factors of emotional experience and their relation to the five factor model. J Pers 60, 441476.
55.Williams, E, Stewart-Knox, B, Helander, A et al. (2006) Associations between whole-blood serotonin and subjective mood in healthy male volunteers. Biol Psychol 71, 171174.
56.Duffy, M, Stewart-Knox, B, McConville, C et al. (2006) The relationship between whole-blood serotonin and subjective mood in apparently healthy postmenopausal women. Biol Psychol 73, 165168.
57.Watson, D & Walker, LM (1996) The long term stability and predictive validity of trait measures of affect. J Pers Soc Psychol 70, 567577.
58.Erdfelder, E, Faul, F & Buchner, A (1996) GPOWER: a general power analysis program. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 28, 111.
59.Simpson, EEA, O’Connor, JM, Livingstone, MBE et al. (2005) Health and lifestyle characteristics of older European adults: the Zenith study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, S13S21.
60.Maylor, EA, Simpson, EEA, Secker, DL et al. (2006) Effects of zinc supplementation on cognitive function in healthy middle-aged and older adults: the Zenith study. Br J Nutr 96, 752760.
61.McConville, C, Simpson, EEA, Rae, G et al. (2005) Positive and negative mood in the elderly: the Zenith study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, S22S25.
62.Hill, RD, Van Boxtel, MPJ, Ponds, R et al. (2005) Positive affect and its relationship to free recall memory performance in a sample of older Dutch adults from the Maastricht aging study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 20, 429435.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed