1Looker, AC, Dallman, PR, Carroll, MD, Gunter, EW, Johnson, CL. Prevalence of iron deficiency in the United States. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 277(12): 973–6.
2American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Iron fortification of infant formulas. Pediatrics 1999; 104(1 Pt 1): 119–23.
3Baltussen, R, Knai, C, Sharan, M. Iron fortification and iron supplementation are cost-effective interventions to reduce iron deficiency in four subregions of the world. Journal of Nutrition 2004; 134(10): 2678–84.
4Yip, R, Ramakrishnan, U. Experiences and challenges in developing countries. Journal of Nutrition 2002; 132(Suppl. 4): 827S–30S.
5Torrejon, CS, Castillo-Duran, C, Hertrampf, ED, Ruz, M. Zinc and iron nutrition in Chilean children fed fortified milk provided by the Complementary National Food Program. Nutrition 2004; 20(2): 177–80.
6Stekel, A, Olivares, M, Cayazzo, M, Chadud, P, Llaguno, S, Pizarro, F. Prevention of iron deficiency by milk fortification. II. A field trial with a full-fat acidified milk. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988; 47(2): 265–9.
7Thuy, PV, Berger, J, Davidsson, L, Khan, NC, Lam, NT, Cook, JD, et al. . Regular consumption of NaFeEDTA-fortified fish sauce improves iron status and reduces the prevalence of anemia in anemic Vietnamese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 78(2): 284–90.
8Zimmermann, MB, Zeder, C, Chaouki, N, Saad, A, Torresani, T, Hurrell, RF. Dual fortification of salt with iodine and microencapsulated iron: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in Moroccan schoolchildren. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 77(2): 425–32.
9Viteri, FE, Alvarez, E, Batres, R, Torun, B, Pineda, O, Mejia, LA, et al. . Fortification of sugar with iron sodium ethylenediaminotetraacetate (FeNaEDTA) improves iron status in semirural Guatemalan populations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; 61(5): 1153–63.
10Layrisse, M, Chaves, JF, Mendez, C, Bosch, V, Tropper, E, Bastardo, B, et al. . Early response to the effect of iron fortification in the Venezuelan population. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996; 64(6): 903–7.
11Sari, M, Bloem, MW, de Pee, S, Schultink, WJ, Sastroamidjojo, S. Effect of iron-fortified candies on the iron status of children aged 4–6 y in East Jakarta, Indonesia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001; 73(6): 1034–9.
12Sherry, B, Mei, Z, Yip, R. Continuation of the decline in prevalence of anemia in low-income infants and children in five states. Pediatrics 2001; 107(4): 677–82.
13Yip, R, Binkin, NJ, Fleshood, L, Trowbridge, FL. Declining prevalence of anemia among low-income children in the United States. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 1987; 258(12): 1619–23.
14Miller, V, Swaney, S, Deinard, A. Impact of the WIC program on the iron status of infants. Pediatrics 1985; 75(1): 100–5.
15Vazquez-Seoane, P, Windom, R, Pearson, HA. Disappearance of iron-deficiency anemia in a high-risk infant population given supplemental iron. New England Journal of Medicine 1985; 313(19): 1239–40.
16Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Iron deficiency – United States, 1999–2000. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2002; 51(40): 897–9.
17Milman, N, Byg, KE, Ovesen, L, Kirchhoff, M, Jurgensen, KS. Iron status in Danish women, 1984–94: a cohort comparison of changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload. European Journal of Haematology 2003; 71(1): 51–61.
18Milman, N, Byg, KE, Ovesen, L, Kirchhoff, M, Jurgensen, KS. Iron status in Danish men 1984–94: a cohort comparison of changes in iron stores and the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload. European Journal of Haematology 2002; 68(6): 332–40.
19Osler, M, Milman, N, Heitmann, BL. Consequences of removing iron fortification of flour on iron status among Danish adults: some longitudinal observations between 1987 and 1994. Preventive Medicine 1999; 29(1): 32–6.
20Olsson, KS, Vaisanen, M, Konar, J, Bruce, A. The effect of withdrawal of food iron fortification in Sweden as studied with phlebotomy in subjects with genetic hemochromatosis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997; 51(11): 782–6.
21McLeroy, K. Thinking of systems. American Journal of Public Health 2006; 96(3): 402.
22Kuczmarski, RJ, Ogden, CL, Guo, SS, Grummer-Strawn, LM, Flegal, KM, Mei, Z, et al. . CDC Growth Charts for the United States: methods and development. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 11, Data from the national health survey 2002; (246): 1–190.
23Berner, LA, Clydesdale, FM, Douglass, JS. Fortification contributed greatly to vitamin and mineral intakes in the United States, 1989–1991. Journal of Nutrition 2001; 131(8): 2177–83.
24Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2000.
25Bothwell, THCR, Cook, JD, Finch, CA. Iron Metabolism in Man. St. Louis, MO: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1979.
26Bothwell, TH. Iron requirements in pregnancy and strategies to meet them. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 72(Suppl.1): 257S–64S.
27Hallberg, L, Hogdahl, AM, Nilsson, L, Rybo, G. Menstrual blood loss – a population study. Variation at different ages and attempts to define normality. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1966; 45(3): 320–51.
28Monsen, ER, Balintfy, JL. Calculating dietary iron bioavailability: refinement and computerization. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1982; 80(4): 307–11.
29Hallberg, L, Brune, M, Erlandsson, M, Sandberg, AS, Rossander-Hulten, L. Calcium: effect of different amounts on nonheme- and heme-iron absorption in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991; 53(1): 112–9.
30Lynch, SR, Skikne, BS, Cook, JD. Food iron absorption in idiopathic hemochromatosis. Blood 1989; 74(6): 2187–93.
32Ventura, SJ, Mosher, WD, Curtin, SC, Abma, JC, Henshaw, S. Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: estimates for the United States, 1976–96. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 21, Data on natality, marriage, and divorce 2000(56): 1–47.
33Linderkamp, O, Versmold, HT, Riegel, KP, Betke, K. Estimation and prediction of blood volume in infants and children. European Journal of Pediatrics 1977; 125(4): 227–34.
34Mollison, P. Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine. Boston, MA: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1983.
35Nadler, SBHJ, Bloch, T. Prediction of blood volume in normal human adults. Surgery 1962; 51: 224–32.
36Hallberg, L, Rossander-Hulten, L. Iron requirements in menstruating women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991; 54(6): 1047–58.
37Hallberg, L. Perspectives on nutritional iron deficiency. Annual Review of Nutrition 2001; 21: 1–21.
38Hallberg, L, Hulthen, L, Garby, L. Iron stores in man in relation to diet and iron requirements. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 52(9): 623–31.
39Subcommittee on Criteria for Dietary Evaluation, Coordinating Committee on Evaluation of Food Consumption Surveys, Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council. Nutrient Adequacy: Assessment using Food Consumption Surveys. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 1986.
40Hallberg, L. Iron balance in pregnancy. In: Berger, H, ed. Vitamins and Minerals in Pregnancy and Lactation. New York: Vevey/Raven Press, Ltd, 1988; 115–27.
41Brock, JH, Halliday, JW, Pippard, MJ, Powell, LW. Iron Metabolism in Health and Disease. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company Ltd, 1994.
42Tao, M. Using microsimulation to evaluate policy issues on hereditary hemochromatosis: a case study for gene–nutrient interactions. , Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2005.
43Hanson, EH, Imperatore, G, Burke, W. HFE gene and hereditary hemochromatosis: a HuGE review. Human Genome Epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 154(3): 193–206.
44Mura, C, Le Gac, G, Raguenes, O, Mercier, AY, Le Guen, A, Ferec, C. Relation between HFE mutations and mild iron-overload expression. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 2000; 69(4): 295–301.
45Cogswell, ME, Gallagher, ML, Steinberg, KK, Caudill, SP, Looker, AC, Bowman, BA, et al. . HFE genotype and transferrin saturation in the United States. Genetics in Medicine 2003; 5(4): 304–10.
46Milman, N, Pedersen, AN, Ovesen, L, Schroll, M. Iron status in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women: relation to food composition and dietary and supplemental iron intake. Annals of Hematology 2004; 83(7): 423–9.
47Milman, N, Byg, KE, Ovesen, L. Iron status in Danes 1994. II: Prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload in 1319 Danish women aged 40–70 years. Influence of blood donation, alcohol intake and iron supplementation. Annals of Hematology 2000; 79(11): 612–21.
48Cogswell, ME, Kettel-Khan, L, Ramakrishnan, U. Iron supplement use among women in the United States: science, policy and practice. Journal of Nutrition 2003; 133(6): 1974S–7S.
49Hulthén, L, Hallberg, L. Increased prevalence of iron deficiency due to withdrawal of iron fortification of flour in Sweden. Reports of the 2004 International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group Symposium. Washington, DC: ILSI Human Nutrition Institute, 2005; 63.