1. World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
2. World Health Organization (2015) World Report on Ageing and Health. Geneva: WHO.
3. Amarantos, E, Martinez, A & Dwyer, J (2001) Nutrition and quality of life in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56, 54–64.10.1093/gerona/56.suppl_2.54
4. Wysokiński, A, Sobów, T, Kłoszewska, I et al. (2015) Mechanisms of the anorexia of aging – a review. Age (Dordr) 37, 9821.10.1007/s11357-015-9821-x
5. Saarela, RKT, Lindroos, E, Soini, H et al. (2016) Dentition, nutritional status and adequacy of dietary intake among older residents in assisted living facilities. Gerodontology 33, 225–232.10.1111/ger.12144
6. John, BK, Bullock, M, Brenner, L et al. (2013) Nutrition in the elderly. Frequently asked questions.
Am J Gastroenterol
7. Guerchet, M, Prina, M, Prince, M et al. (2014
) Nutrition and Dementia: A Review of Available Research
. London: Alzheimer’s Disease International.
8. Jyrkkä, J, Mursu, J, Enlund, H et al. (2012) Polypharmacy and nutritional status in elderly people. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 15, 1–6.10.1097/MCO.0b013e32834d155a
9. Meijers, JMM, Schols, JMGA & Halfens, RJG (2014) Malnutrition in care home residents with dementia. J Nutr Health Aging 18, 595–600.10.1007/s12603-014-0006-6
10. Tamura, BK, Bell, CL, Masaki, KH et al. (2013) Factors associated with weight loss, low BMI, and malnutrition among nursing home patients: a systematic review of the literature. J Am Med Dir Assoc 14, 649–655.10.1016/j.jamda.2013.02.022
11. Tani, Y, Kondo, N, Takagi, D et al. (2015) Combined effects of eating alone and living alone on unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity and underweight in older Japanese adults: results of the JAGES. Appetite 95, 1–8.10.1016/j.appet.2015.06.005
12. Donini, LM, Scardella, P, Piombo, L et al. (2013) Malnutrition in elderly: social and economic determinants. J Nutr Health Aging 17, 9–15.10.1007/s12603-012-0374-8
13. Soenen, S & Chapman, IM (2013) Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people. J Am Med Dir Assoc 14, 642–648.10.1016/j.jamda.2013.02.004
14. European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (2011) Diagnosis of malnutrition – screening and assessment. In Basics in Clinical Nutrition, 4th ed., pp. 21–32 [L Sobotka, SP Allison, A Forbes et al., editors]. Prague: Galén.
15. Cederholm, T, Bosaeus, I, Barazzoni, R et al. (2015) Diagnostic criteria for malnutrition – an ESPEN consensus statement. Clin Nutr 34, 335–340.10.1016/j.clnu.2015.03.001
16. Neyens, J, Halfens, R, Spreeuwenberg, M et al. (2013) Malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of falls and impaired activity in elderly patients in Dutch residential long-term care (LTC): a cross-sectional study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 56, 265–269.10.1016/j.archger.2012.08.005
17. Lesourd, B (2004) Nutrition: a major factor influencing immunity in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging 8, 28–37.
18. Rasheed, S & Woods, RT (2013) Malnutrition and quality of life in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Res Rev 12, 561–566.10.1016/j.arr.2012.11.003
19. Norman, K, Pichard, C, Lochs, H et al. (2008) Prognostic impact of disease-related malnutrition. Clin Nutr 27, 5–15.10.1016/j.clnu.2007.10.007
20. Alexopoulos, GS (2005) Depression in the elderly. Lancet 365, 1961–1970.10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66665-2
21. Kassebaum, NJ, Arora, M, Barber, RM et al. (2016) Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388, 1603–1658.10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31460-X
22. Inzitari, M, Doets, E, Bartali, B et al. (2011) Nutrition in the age-related disablement process. J Nutr Health Aging 15, 599–604.10.1007/s12603-011-0053-1
23. Bell, CL, Lee, ASW & Tamura, BK (2015) Malnutrition in the nursing home. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 18, 17–23.10.1097/MCO.0000000000000130
24. Cereda, E (2012) Mini nutritional assessment. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 15, 29–41.10.1097/MCO.0b013e32834d7647
25. Morley, JE, Caplan, G, Cesari, M et al. (2014) International survey of nursing home research priorities. J Am Med Dir Assoc 15, 309–312.10.1016/j.jamda.2014.03.003
26. Gabinete de Estratégia e Planeamento (2015) Carta social – Rede de equipamentos e serviços 2015. Lisbon: Ministério do Trabalho, Solidariedade e Segurança Social (MTSSS).
27. Gabinete de Estratégia e Planeamento (2009) A dependência: o apoio informal, a rede de serviços e equipamentos e os cuidados continuados integrados. Lisbon: Ministério do Trabalho, Solidariedade e Segurança Social (MTSSS).
28. Donini, LM, Poggiogalle, E, Molfino, A et al. (2016) Mini-Nutritional Assessment, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and Nutrition Risk Screening Tool for the nutritional evaluation of older nursing home residents. J Am Med Dir Assoc 17, 959.e11–e18.10.1016/j.jamda.2016.06.028
29. Madeira, T, Peixoto-Plácido, C, Goulão, B et al. (2016) National survey of the Portuguese elderly nutritional status: study protocol. BMC Geriatr 16, 139.10.1186/s12877-016-0299-x
30. World Medical Association, (2013) World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. JAMA 310, 2191–2194.
31. Lopes, C, Torres, D, Oliveira, A et al. (2018) National Food, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Survey of the Portuguese general population (2015–2016): protocol for design and development. JMIR Res Protoc 7, e42.10.2196/resprot.8990
32. Folstein, MF, Folstein, SE & McHugh, PR (1975) ‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12, 189–198.10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6
33. Guerreiro, M, Silva, AP, Botelho, MA et al. (1994) Adaptação à população portuguesa da tradução do ‘Mini Mental State Examination’ (MMSE). Rev Port Neurol issue 1, 9–10.
34. Rubenstein, LZ, Harker, JO, Salvà, A et al. (2001) Screening for undernutrition in geriatric practice: developing the short-form mini-nutritional assessment (MNA-SF). J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56, M366–M372.10.1093/gerona/56.6.M366
35. Vellas, B, Villars, H, Abellan, G et al. (2006) Overview of the MNA – its history and challenges. J Nutr Health Aging 10, 456–463.
36. Guigoz, Y (2006) The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) review of the literature – what does it tell us? J Nutr Health Aging 10, 466–485.
37. Stewart, AD, Marfell-Jones, M, Olds, T et al. (2011) International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment. Lower Hutt, New Zealand: International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry.
38. Guerra, RS, Fonseca, I, Pichel, F et al. (2014) Hand length as an alternative measurement of height. Eur J Clin Nutr 68, 229–233.10.1038/ejcn.2013.220
39. Kaiser, MJ, Bauer, JM, Ramsch, C et al. (2009) Validation of the Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form (MNA-SF): a practical tool for identification of nutritional status. J Nutr Health Aging 13, 782–788.10.1007/s12603-009-0214-7
40. World Health Organization (1995) Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. WHO Technical Report Series no. 854. Geneva: WHO.
41. Sheikh, JI & Yesavage, JA (1986) Geriatric Depression Scale: recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clin Gerontol 5, 165–173.
42. Pocklington, C, Gilbody, S, Manea, L et al. (2016) The diagnostic accuracy of brief versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 31, 837–857.10.1002/gps.4407
43. Lawton, MP & Brody, EM (1969) Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist 9, 179–186.
44. Russell, DW (1996) UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): reliability, validity, and factor structure. J Pers Assess 66, 20–40.
45. Pocinho, M, Farate, C & Amaral Dias, C (2000) Validação psicométrica da escala UCLA – loneliness para idosos Portugueses. Interações 18, 65–77.
46. Strathmann, S, Lesser, S, Bai-Habelski, J et al. (2013) Institutional factors associated with the nutritional status of residents from 10 German nursing homes (ErnSTES study). J Nutr Health Aging 17, 271–276.
47. Suominen, M, Muurinen, S, Routasalo, P et al. (2005) Malnutrition and associated factors among aged residents in all nursing homes in Helsinki. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 578–583.
49. Bell, CL, Tamura, BK, Masaki, KH et al. (2013) Prevalence and measures of nutritional compromise among nursing home patients: weight loss, low body mass index, malnutrition, and feeding dependency, a systematic review of the literature. J Am Med Dir Assoc 14, 94–100.
50. Serrano-Urrea, R & Garcia-Meseguer, MJ (2013) Malnutrition in an elderly population without cognitive impairment living in nursing homes in Spain: study of prevalence using the Mini Nutritional Assessment test. Gerontology 59, 490–498.
51. Verbrugghe, M, Beeckman, D, Van Hecke, A et al. (2013) Malnutrition and associated factors in nursing home residents: a cross-sectional, multi-centre study. Clin Nutr 32, 438–443.
52. Gavriilidou, NN, Pihlsgård, M & Elmståhl, S (2015) High degree of BMI misclassification of malnutrition among Swedish elderly population: age-adjusted height estimation using knee height and demispan. Eur J Clin Nutr 69, 565–571.
53. Chang, S-H, Beason, TS, Hunleth, JM et al. (2012) A systematic review of body fat distribution and mortality in older people. Maturitas 72, 175–191.
54. Peter, RS, Mayer, B, Concin, H et al. (2015) The effect of age on the shape of the BMI–mortality relation and BMI associated with minimum all-cause mortality in a large Austrian cohort. Int J Obes (Lond) 39, 530–534.
55. Veronese, N, Cereda, E, Solmi, M et al. (2015) Inverse relationship between body mass index and mortality in older nursing home residents: a meta-analysis of 19,538 elderly subjects. Obes Rev 16, 1001–1015.
56. Flegal, KM, Kit, BK, Orpana, H et al. (2013) Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories. JAMA 309, 71–82.
57. Favaro-Moreira, NC, Krausch-Hofmann, S, Matthys, C et al. (2016) Risk factors for malnutrition in older adults: a systematic review of the literature based on longitudinal data. Adv Nutr 7, 507–522.
58. Naseer, M & Fagerström, C (2015) Prevalence and association of undernutrition with quality of life among Swedish people aged 60 years and above: results of the SNAC-B study. J Nutr Health Aging 19, 970–979.