Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Iron intake does not significantly correlate with iron deficiency among young Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

  • Keiko Asakura (a1), Satoshi Sasaki (a2), Kentaro Murakami (a2), Yoshiko Takahashi (a3), Kazuhiro Uenishi (a4), Miki Yamakawa (a5), Yuji Nishiwaki (a1), Yuriko Kikuchi (a1), Toru Takebayashi (a1) and the Japan Dietetic Students’ Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group...

Abstract

Objectives

We evaluated the association of nutrient intake with Fe deficiency with regard to lifestyle factors and health condition in young Japanese women. Uniquely among developed countries, dietary habits render Japanese populations vulnerable to Fe deficiency, owing to their relatively low intake of Fe and high intake of Fe absorption inhibitors, such as green tea and soyabeans.

Design

A cross-sectional study.

Setting and subjects

The subjects were 1019 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18–25 years. Dietary habits during the preceding month were assessed using a previously validated, self-administered, diet history questionnaire. Blood analysis was performed to assess body Fe status. Subjects were categorized with Fe deficiency when their serum ferritin levels were <12 ng/ml. Twenty-nine dietary variables, i.e. intakes of energy, sixteen nutrients including Fe and twelve food groups, were analysed using multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for possible confounders.

Results

Of the subjects, 24·5 % were categorized with Fe deficiency. However, no dietary factors assessed were significantly associated with Fe deficiency. The risk of Fe deficiency was significantly lower in women with infrequent or no menstrual cycles than in those with regular cycles (OR = 0·58; 95 % CI 0·34, 1·00) and significantly higher in women with heavy menstrual flow than in women with average flow, albeit that these were self-reported (OR = 1·83; 95 % CI 1·35, 2·48).

Conclusions

These results suggest that dietary habits, including Fe intake, do not significantly correlate with Fe deficiency among young Japanese women.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Iron intake does not significantly correlate with iron deficiency among young Japanese women: a cross-sectional study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Iron intake does not significantly correlate with iron deficiency among young Japanese women: a cross-sectional study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Iron intake does not significantly correlate with iron deficiency among young Japanese women: a cross-sectional study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email stssasak@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Footnotes

Hide All

The members of the Japan Dietetic Students’ Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group (in addition to the authors) are as follows: Mitsuyo Yamasaki, Yuko Hisatomi, Junko Soezima and Kazumi Takedomi (Nishikyushu University); Toshiyuki Kohri and Naoko Kaba (Kinki University); Etsuko Uneoka (Otemae College of Nutrition); Hitomi Hayabuchi and Yoko Umeki (Fukuoka Women’s University); Keiko Baba and Maiko Suzuki (Mie Chukyo University Junior College); Reiko Watanabe and Kanako Muramatsu (Niigata Women’s College); Kazuko Ohki, Seigo Shiga, Hidemichi Ebisawa and Masako Fuwa (Showa Women’s University); Tomoko Watanabe, Ayuho Suzuki and Fumiyo Kudo (Chiba College of Health Science); Katsumi Shibata, Tsutomu Fukuwatari and Junko Hirose (The University of Shiga Prefecture); Toru Takahashi and Masako Kato (Mimasaka University); Toshinao Goda and Yoko Ichikawa (University of Shizuoka); Junko Suzuki, Yoko Niida, Satomi Morohashi, Chiaki Shimizu and Naomi Takeuchi (Hokkaido Bunkyo University); Jun Oka and Tomoko Ide (Tokyo Kasei University); and Yoshiko Sugiyama and Mika Furuki (Minamikyushu University).

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1.Looker, AC, Dallman, PR, Carroll, MD, Gunter, EW & Johnson, CL (1997) Prevalence of iron deficiency in the United States. JAMA 277, 973976.
2.Heath, A-LM & Fairweather-Tait, SJ (2002) Clinical implications of changes in the modern diet: iron intake, absorption and status. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 15, 225241.
3.Uchida, T, Kawachi, Y, Sakamoto, Y, Igaki, T, Ogasawara, N, Kariyone, S, Matsuda, S, Tanaka, T, Kimura, H & Kokubun, K (1992) Prevalence and pathogenesis of iron deficiency in Japanese women (1981–1991). Rinsho Ketsueki 33, 16611665.
4.Sanstead, HH (2000) Causes of iron and zinc deficiencies and their effects on brain. J Nutr 130, 347S349S.
5.Scholz, B, Gross, R, Schultink, W & Sastroamidjojo, S (1997) Anaemia is associated with reduced productivity of women workers even in less-physically-strenuous tasks. Br J Nutr 77, 4757.
6.Scrimshaw, N (1991) Iron deficiency. Sci Am 265, 4652.
7.Brabin, BJ, Hakimi, M & Pelletier, D (2001) An analysis of anemia and pregnancy-related maternal mortality. J Nutr 131, 604S614S.
8.Scholl, TO & Reilly, T (2000) Anemia, iron and pregnancy outcome. J Nutr 130, 443S447S.
9.Galan, P, Yoon, H-C, Preziosi, P et al. (1998) Determining factors in the iron status of adult women in the SU. VI.MAX study. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 383388.
10.Deegan, H, Bates, HM & McCargar, LJ (2005) Assessment of iron status in adolescents: dietary, biochemical and lifestyle determinants. J Adolesc Health 37, 75.e1575.e21.
11.Cade, JE, Moreton, JA, O’Hara, B, Greenwood, DC, Moor, J, Burley, VJ, Kukalizch, K, Bishop, DT & Worwood, M (2005) Diet and genetic factors associated with iron status in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 813820.
12.Pynaert, I, Delanghe, J, Temmerman, M & De Henauw, S (2007) Iron intake in relation to diet and iron status of young adult women. Ann Nutr Metab 51, 172181.
13.Suedekum, NA & Dimeff, RJ (2005) Iron and the athlete. Curr Sports Med Rep 4, 199202.
14.Harvey, LJ, Armah, CN, Dainty, JR, Foxall, RJ, Lewis, DJ, Langford, NJ & Fairweather-Tait, SJ (2005) Impact of menstrual blood loss and diet on iron deficiency among women in the UK. Br J Nutr 94, 557564.
15.Heath, A-LM, Skeaff, CM, Williams, S & Gibson, RS (2001) The role of blood loss and diet in the aetiology of mild iron deficiency in premenopausal adult New Zealand women. Public Health Nutr 4, 197206.
16.Barr, F, Brabin, L, Agbaje, S, Buseri, F, Ikimalo, J & Brigg, N (1998) Reducing iron deficiency anaemia due to heavy menstrual blood loss in Nigerian rural adolescents. Public Health Nutr 1, 249257.
17.Foo, LH, Khor, GL, Tee, E-S & Dhanaraj, P (2004) Determinants of iron status in Malaysian adolescents from a rural community. Int J Food Sci Nutr 55, 517525.
18.Thankachan, P, Muthayya, S, Walczyk, T, Kurpad, AV & Hurrell, RF (2007) An analysis of the etiology of anemia and iron deficiency in young women of low socioeconomic status in Bangalore, India. Food Nutr Bull 28, 328336.
19.Park, SY, Paik, HY, Skinner, JD, Spindler, AA & Park, HR (2004) Nutrient intake of Korean-American, Korean, and American adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 242245.
20.Pynaert, I, Matthys, C, Bacquer, DD, Backer, GD & Henauw, SD (2008) Evaluation of a 2-day food record to determine iron, calcium and vitamin C intake in young Belgian women. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 104110.
21.Vyas, A, Greenhalgh, A, Cade, J, Sanghera, B, Riste, L, Sharma, S & Cruickshank, K (2003) Nutrient intakes of an adult Pakistani, European and African-Caribbean community in inner city Britain. J Hum Nutr Diet 16, 327337.
22.Matsuda-Inoguchi, N, Shimbo, S, Nakatsuka, H, Watanabe, T, Higashioka, K & Ikeda, M (2004) Effects of revision of Japanese food composition tables on estimation of nutrient intakes, with reference to age-dependent differences. Public Health Nutr 7, 901909.
23.Tsugane, S, Sasaki, S, Kobayashi, M, Tsubono, Y & Sobue, T (2001) Dietary habits among the JPHC study participants at baseline survey. Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study on Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases. J Epidemiol 11, 6 Suppl., S30S43.
24.Yamamoto, S, Sobue, T, Sasaki, S et al. (2001) Validity and reproducibility of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire to assess isoflavone intake in a Japanese population in comparison with dietary records and blood and urine isoflavones. J Nutr 131, 27412747.
25.Tsubono, Y, Nishio, Y, Komatsu, S, Hsieh, C-C, Kanemura, S, Tsuji, I, Nakatsuka, H, Fukao, A, Satoh, H & Hisamichi, S (2001) Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer in Japan. N Engl J Med 344, 632636.
26.Sasaki, S, Ushio, F, Amano, K, Morihara, M, Todoroki, T, Uehara, Y & Toyooka, E (2000) Serum biomarker-based validation of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese subjects. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 46, 285296.
27.Sasaki, S, Yanagibori, R & Amano, K (1998) Self-administered diet history questionnaire developed for health education: a relative validation of the test-version by comparison with 3-day diet record in women. J Epidemiol 8, 203215.
28.Sasaki, S, Yanagibori, R & Amano, K (1998) Validity of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for assessment of sodium and potassium: comparison with single 24-hour urinary excretion. Jpn Circ J 62, 431435.
29.Murakami, K, Sasaki, S, Takahashi, Y, Okubo, H, Hirota, N, Notsu, A, Fukui, M & Date, C (2008) Reproducibility and relative validity of dietary glycaemic index and load assessed with a self-administered diet-history questionnaire in Japanese adults. Br J Nutr 99, 639648.
30.Science and Technology Agency (2005) Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan, fifth revised and enlarged ed. Tokyo: Printing Bureau of the Ministry of Finance.
31.Monsen, ER, Hallberg, L, Layrisee, M, Hegsted, M, Cook, JD, Mertz, W & Finch, CA (1978) Estimation of available dietary iron. Am J Clin Nutr 31, 134141.
32.Harland, BF & Oberleas, D (1987) Phytate in foods. World Rev Nutr Diet 52, 235259.
33.Ma, G, Jin, Y, Piao, J, Kok, F, Guusje, B & Jacobsen, E (2005) Phytate, calcium, iron and zinc contents and their molar ratios in foods commonly consumed in China. J Agric Food Chem 53, 1028510290.
34.Wolters, MGE, Diepenmaat, HB, Hermus, RJJ & Voragen, AGJ (1993) Relation between in vitro availability of minerals and food composition: a mathematical model. J Food Sci 58, 13491355.
35.Khokhar, S, Pushpanjali, & Fenwick, GR (1994) Phytate content of Indian foods and intakes by vegetarian Indians of Hisar region, Haryana state. J Agric Food Chem 42, 24402444.
36.Monsen, ER & Balintfy, JL (1982) Calculating dietary iron bioavailability: refinement and computerization. J Am Diet Assoc 80, 307311.
37.Bhargava, A, Bouis, HE & Scrimshaw, NS (2001) Dietary intakes and socioeconomic factors are associated with the hemoglobin concentration of Bangladeshi women. J Nutr 131, 758764.
38.Tseng, M, Chakraborty, H, Robinson, DT, Mendez, M & Kohlmeier, L (1997) Adjustment of iron intake for dietary enhancers and inhibitors in population studies: bioavailable iron in rural and urban residing Russian women and children. J Nutr 127, 14561468.
39.Rodriguez, SC, Hotz, C & Rivera, JA (2007) Bioavailable dietary iron is associated with hemoglobin concentration in Mexican preschool children. J Nutr 137, 23042310.
40.Hallberg, L & Hulthen, L (2000) Prediction of dietary iron absorption: an algorithm for calculating absorption and bioavailability of dietary iron. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 11471160.
41.Zijp, IM, Korver, O & Tijburg, LBM (2000) Effect of tea and other dietary factors on iron absorption. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 40, 371398.
42.Cook, JD & Finch, CA (1979) Assessing iron status of a population. Am J Clin Nutr 32, 21152119.
43.Cook, JD & Skikne, B (1989) Iron deficiency: definition and diagnosis. J Intern Med 226, 349355.
44.Ainsworth, BE, Haskell, WL, Leon, AS, Jacobs, DR Jr, Montoye, HJ, Sallis, JF & Paffenbarger, RS Jr (1993) Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25, 7180.
45.Murakami, K, Sasaki, S, Takahashi, Y, Uenishi, K & the Japan Dietetic Students’ Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group (2007) Dietary energy density is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with other metabolic risk factors, in free-living young Japanese women. Nutrition 23, 798806.
46.Layrisse, M, Garcia-Casal, MN, Solano, L, Baron, MA, Arguello, F, Llovera, D, Ramirez, J, Leets, I & Tropper, E (1997) The role of vitamin A on the inhibitors of nonheme iron absorption: preliminary results. J Nutr Biochem 8, 6167.
47.Davidsson, L, Galan, P, Kastenmayer, P, Cherouyrier, F, Juillerat, MA, Serge, H & Hurrell, RF (1994) Iron bioavailability studied in infants: the influence of phytic acid and ascorbic acid in infant formulas based on soy isolate. Pediatr Res 36, 816822.
48.Fleming, DJ, Tucker, KL, Jacques, PF, Dallal, GE, Wilson, PWF & Wood, RJ (2002) Dietary factors associated with the risk of high iron stores in the elderly Framingham Heart Study cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 13751384.
49.Milman, N (1996) Serum ferritin in Danes: studies of iron status from infancy to old age, during blood donation and pregnancy. Int J Hematol 63, 103135.
50.Milman, N, Rosdahl, N, Lyhne, N & Jogersen, T (1993) Iron stores in 883 Danish women aged 35–65 years. Relation to menstruation and method for contraception. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 72, 601605.
51.Rangan, AM, Aitken, I, Blight, GD & Binns, CW (1997) Factors affecting iron status in 15–30 year old female students. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 6, 291295.
52.Hallberg, L, Hogdahl, AM, Nilsson, L & Rybo, G (1966) Menstrual blood loss – a population study. Variation at different ages and attempts to define mortality. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 45, 320351.
53.Cole, SK, Billewicz, WZ & Thomson, AM (1971) Sources of variation in menstrual blood loss. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 78, 933939.
54.Milman, N, Kirchhoff, M & Jogersen, T (1992) Iron status markers, serum ferritin and haemoglobin in 1359 Danish women in relation to menstruation, hormonal contraception, parity, and postmenopausal hormone treatment. Ann Hematol 65, 96102.
55.United Nations Population Division, Department of Economics and Social Affairs (2008) World Contraceptive Use 2007. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/contraceptive2007/contraceptive_2007_table.pdf (accessed October 2008).
56.Morse, AC, Beard, JL & Jones, BC (1999) A genetic developmental model of iron deficiency: biological aspects. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 220, 147152.
57.Buchanan, GR & Sheehan, RG (1981) Malabsorption and defective utilization of iron in three siblings. J Pediatr 98, 723728.
58.Hartman, KR & Barker, JA (1996) Microcytic anemia with iron malabsorption: an inherited disorder of iron metabolism. Am J Hematol 51, 269275.
59.Pearson, HA & Lukens, JN (1999) Ferrokinetics in the syndrome of familial hypoferremic microcytic anemia with iron malabsorption. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 21, 412417.
60.Beutler, E, Felitti, VJ, Koziol, JA, Ho, NJ & Gelbart, T (2002) Penetrance of 845G→A (C282Y) HFE hereditary haemochromatosis mutation in the USA. Lancet 359, 211218.
61.McCune, CA, Al-Jader, LN, May, A, Hayes, SL, Jackson, HA & Worwood, M (2002) Hereditary haemochromatosis: only 1 % of adult HFE C282Y homozygotes in South Wales have a clinical diagnosis of iron overload. Hum Genet 111, 538543.
62.Hulthen, L, Lindstedt, G, Lundberg, P-A & Hallberg, L (1998) Effect of mild infection on serum ferritin concentration – clinical and epidemiological implications. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 376379.
63.Borel, MJ, Smith, SM, Derr, J & Beard, JL (1991) Day-to-day variation in iron-status indices in healthy men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 729735.
64.Cooper, MJ & Zlotkin, SH (1996) Day-to-day variation of transferrin receptor and ferritin in healthy men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 738742.
65.Cook, JD, Skikne, BS, Lynch, SR & Reusser, ME (1986) Estimates of iron sufficiency in the US population. Blood 68, 726731.
66.Murakami, K, Sasaki, S, Takahashi, Y et al. (2008) Misreporting of dietary energy, protein, potassium and sodium in relation to body mass index in young Japanese women. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 111118.

Keywords

Iron intake does not significantly correlate with iron deficiency among young Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

  • Keiko Asakura (a1), Satoshi Sasaki (a2), Kentaro Murakami (a2), Yoshiko Takahashi (a3), Kazuhiro Uenishi (a4), Miki Yamakawa (a5), Yuji Nishiwaki (a1), Yuriko Kikuchi (a1), Toru Takebayashi (a1) and the Japan Dietetic Students’ Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed