1. Slavin, JL, Jacobs, D & Marquart, L (2000) Grain processing and nutrition. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 40, 309–326.
2. de Munter, JS, Hu, FB, Spiegelman, D et al. (2007) Whole grain, bran, and germ intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study and systematic review. PLoS Med 4, e261.
3. Jacobs, DR Jr, Meyer, KA, Kushi, LH et al. (1998) Whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease death in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 248–257.
4. Jensen, MK, Koh-Banerjee, P, Hu, FB et al. (2004) Intakes of whole grains, bran, and germ and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 1492–1499.
5. Newby, PK, Maras, J, Bakun, P et al. (2007) Intake of whole grains, refined grains, and cereal fiber measured with 7-d diet records and associations with risk factors for chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1745–1753.
6. Liu, S, Willett, WC, Manson, JE et al. (2003) Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 920–927.
7. Kasum, CM, Nicodemus, K, Harnack, LJ et al. (2001) Whole grain intake and incident endometrial cancer: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Nutr Cancer 39, 180–186.
8. Larsson, SC, Giovannucci, E, Bergkvist, L et al. (2005) Whole grain consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort of 60,000 women. Br J Cancer 92, 1803–1807.
9. Terry, P, Lagergren, J, Ye, W et al. (2001) Inverse association between intake of cereal fiber and risk of gastric cardia cancer. Gastroenterology 120, 387–391.
10. Chatenoud, L, Tavani, A, La, Vecchia C et al. (1998) Whole grain food intake and cancer risk. Int J Cancer 77, 24–28.
11. Egeberg, R, Frederiksen, K, Olsen, A et al. (2009) Intake of wholegrain products is associated with dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and socio-economic factors in Denmark. Public Health Nutr 12, 1519–1530.
12. Cleveland, LE, Moshfegh, AJ, Albertson, AM et al. (2000) Dietary intake of whole grains. J Am Coll Nutr 19, Suppl. 3, S331–S338.
13. Lang, R, Thane, CW, Bolton-Smith, C et al. (2003) Consumption of whole-grain foods by British adults: findings from further analysis of two national dietary surveys. Public Health Nutr 6, 479–484.
14. Thane, CW, Jones, AR, Stephen, AM et al. (2007) Comparative whole-grain intake of British adults in 1986–7 and 2000–1. Br J Nutr 97, 987–992.
15. Ross, AB, Becker, W, Chen, Y et al. (2005) Intake of alkylresorcinols from wheat and rye in the United Kingdom and Sweden. Br J Nutr 94, 496–499.
16. Jacobs, DR Jr, Meyer, HE & Solvoll, K (2001) Reduced mortality among whole grain bread eaters in men and women in the Norwegian County Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 137–143.
17. Slimani, N, Ferrari, P, Ocke, M et al. (2000) Standardization of the 24-hour diet recall calibration method used in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC): general concepts and preliminary results. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 900–917.
18. Lund, E, Dumeaux, V, Braaten, T et al. (2008) Cohort profile: The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study – NOWAC – Kvinner og kreft. Int J Epidemiol 37, 36–41.
19. Hallmans, G, Agren, A, Johansson, G et al. (2003) Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study Cohort – evaluation of risk factors and their interactions. Scand J Public Health Suppl 61, 18–24.
20. Van Guelpen, B, Hultdin, J, Johansson, I et al. (2005) Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: a prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Stroke 36, 1426–1431.
21. Tjonneland, A, Olsen, A, Boll, K et al. (2007) Study design, exposure variables, and socioeconomic determinants of participation in diet, cancer and health: a population-based prospective cohort study of 57,053 men and women in Denmark. Scand J Public Health 35, 432–441.
22. Slimani, N, Kaaks, R, Ferrari, P et al. (2002) European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics. Public Health Nutr 5, 1125–1145.
23. Brustad, M, Skeie, G, Braaten, T et al. (2003) Comparison of telephone vs face-to-face interviews in the assessment of dietary intake by the 24 h recall EPIC SOFT program – the Norwegian Calibration Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 107–113.
26. Slimani, N, Deharveng, G, Unwin, I et al. (2007) Standardisation of an European end-user nutrient database for nutritional epidemiology: what can we learn from the EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB) Project? Trends Food Sci Technol 18, 407–419.
27. Greenland, S (1995) Dose–response and trend analysis in epidemiology: alternatives to categorical analysis. Epidemiology 6, 356–365.
28. Harland, JI & Garton, LE (2008) Whole-grain intake as a marker of healthy body weight and adiposity. Public Health Nutr 11, 554–563.
29. Burgess-Champoux, TL, Larson, NI, Neumark-Sztainer, DR et al. (2010) Longitudinal and secular trends in adolescent whole-grain consumption, 1999–2004. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 154–159.
30. Prattala, R, Helasoja, V & Mykkanen, H (2001) The consumptionof rye bread and white bread as dimensions of health lifestyles in Finland. Public Health Nutr 4, 813–819.
31. Koh-Banerjee, P, Franz, M, Sampson, L et al. (2004) Changes in whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber consumption in relation to 8-y weight gain among men. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 1237–1245.
32. Bazzano, LA, Song, Y, Bubes, V et al. (2005) Dietary intake of whole and refined grain breakfast cereals and weight gain in men. Obes Res 13, 1952–1960.
33. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR.
34. Elwood, PC, Pickering, JE, Hughes, J et al. (2004) Milk drinking, ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke II. Evidence from cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 718–724.
35. Tholstrup, T (2006) Dairy products and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 17, 1–10.
36. Tjonneland, A, Overvad, K, Haraldsdottir, J et al. (1991) Validation of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire developed in Denmark. Int J Epidemiol 20, 906–912.
37. Lund, E, Kumle, M, Braaten, T et al. (2003) External validity in a population-based national prospective study – the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (NOWAC). Cancer Causes Control 14, 1001–1008.
38. Weinehall, L, Hallgren, CG, Westman, G et al. (1998) Reduction of selection bias in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease through involvement of primary health care. Scand J Prim Health Care 16, 171–176.