1.Flegal, KM, Carroll, MD, Kuczmarski, RJ & Johnson, CL (1998) Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960–1994. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22, 39–47.
2.Ogden, CL, Carroll, MD, Curtin, LR, McDowell, MA, Tabak, CJ & Flegal, KM (2006) Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 295, 1549–1555.
3.Gregg, E, Cheng, Y, Cadwell, B, Imperatore, G, Williams, D, Flegal, K, Narayan, KMV & Williamson, DF (2005) Secular trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors according to body mass index in US adults. JAMA 293, 1868–1874.
4.Finkelstein, EA, Fiebelkorn, IC & Wang, G (2004) State-level estimates of annual medical expenditures attributable to obesity. Obes Res 12, 18–24.
5.Quesenberry, CP Jr, Caan, B & Jacobson, A (1998) Obesity, health services use, and health care costs among members of a health maintenance organization. Arch Intern Med 158, 466–472.
6.Wolf, AM & Colditz, GA (1998) Current estimates of the economic cost of obesity in the United States. Obes Res 6, 97–106.
7.Lawrence, RC, Helmick, CG, Arnett, FC et al. (1998) Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis Rheum 41, 778–799.
8.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) National and state medical expenditures and lost earnings attributable to arthritis and other rheumatic conditions – United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56, 4–7.
9.Madhok, R, Lewallen, DG, Wallrichs, SL, Ilstrup, DM, Kurland, RL & Melton, LJ 3rd (1993) Trends in the utilisation of primary total hip arthroplasty, 1969 through 1990: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc 68, 11–18.
10.Birrell, F, Johnell, O & Silman, A (1999) Projecting the need for hip replacement over the next three decades: influence of changing demography and threshold for surgery. Ann Rheum Dis 58, 569–572.
11.Powell, A, Teichtahl, AJ, Wluka, AE & Cicuttini, FM (2005) Obesity: a preventable risk factor for large joint osteoarthritis which may act through biomechanical factors. Br J Sports Med 39, 4–5.
12.Wendelboe, AM, Hegmann, KT, Biggs, JJ, Cox, CM, Portmann, AJ, Gildea, JH, Gren, LH & Lyon, JL (2003) Relationships between body mass indices and surgical replacements of knee and hip joints. Am J Prev Med 25, 290–295.
13.Chang, RW, Pellisier, JM & Hazen, GB (1996) A cost-effectiveness analysis of total hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis of the hip. JAMA 275, 858–865.
14.DeFrances, CJ & Hall, MJ (2004) 2002 National Hospital Discharge Survey. Adv Data 1–29.
15.Kozak, LJ, DeFrances, CJ & Hall, MJ (2006) National hospital discharge survey: 2004 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data. Vital Health Stat 13 1–209.
16.Jibodh, SR, Gurkan, I & Wenz, JF (2004) In-hospital outcome and resource use in hip arthroplasty: influence of body mass. Orthopedics 27, 594–601.
17.Epstein, AM, Read, JL & Hoefer, M (1987) The relation of body weight to length of stay and charges for hospital services for patients undergoing elective surgery: a study of two procedures. Am J Public Health 77, 993–997.
18.Berry, DJ, Kessler, M & Morrey, BF (1997) Maintaining a hip registry for 25 years. Mayo Clinic experience. Clin Orthop Relat Res 61–68.
19.Charlson, ME, Pompei, P, Ales, KL & MacKenzie, CR (1987) A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis 40, 373–383.
20.Long, KH, Bannon, MP, Zietlow, SP, Helgeson, ER, Harmsen, WS, Smith, CD, Ilstrup, DM, Baerga-Varela, Y & Sarr, MG (2001) A prospective randomized comparison of laparoscopic appendectomy with open appendectomy: clinical and economic analyses. Surgery 129, 390–400.
21.Fong Soohoo, N, Zingmond, DS, Lieberman, JR & Ko, CY (2006) Optimal timeframe for reporting short-term complication rates after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 21, 705–711.
22.Batsis, JA, Naessens, JM, Keegan, MT, Huddleston, PM, Wagie, A & Huddleston, JM (2009) Cost-savings of hip arthroplasty patients on specialty orthopedic surgery units. Am J Orthop 38, E5–E11.
23.Zizza, C, Herring, AH, Stevens, J & Popkin, BM (2004) Length of hospital stays among obese individuals. Am J Public Health 94, 1587–1591.
24.Thompson, D, Brown, JB, Nichols, GA, Elmer, PJ & Oster, G (2001) Body mass index and future healthcare costs: a retrospective cohort study. Obes Res 9, 210–218.
25.Lehman, DE, Capello, WN & Feinberg, JR (1994) Total hip arthroplasty without cement in obese patients. A minimum two-year clinical and radiographic follow-up study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 76, 854–862.
26.Bowditch, MG & Villar, RN (1999) Do obese patients bleed more? A prospective study of blood loss at total hip replacement. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 81, 198–200.
27.Schwann, TA, Habib, RH, Zacharias, A, Parenteau, GL, Riordan, CJ, Durham, SJ & Engoren, M (2001) Effects of body size on operative, intermediate, and long-term outcomes after coronary artery bypass operation. Ann Thorac Surg 71, 521–530.
28.Finkielman, JD, Gajic, O & Afessa, B (2004) Underweight is independently associated with mortality in post-operative and non-operative patients admitted to the intensive care unit: a retrospective study. BMC Emerg Med 4, 3.
29.Ray, DE, Matchett, SC, Baker, K, Wasser, T & Young, MJ (2005) The effect of body mass index on patient outcomes in a medical ICU. Chest 127, 2125–2131.
30.Prem, KA, Mensheha, N & McKelvey, JL (1965) Operative treatment of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in obese women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 92, 16–22.
31.Moulton, MJ, Creswell, LL, Mackey, ME, Cox, JL & Rosenbloom, M (1996) Obesity is not a risk factor for significant adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery. Circulation 94, II87–II92.
32.Jiganti, JJ, Goldstein, WM & Williams, CS (1993) A comparison of the perioperative morbidity in total joint arthroplasty in the obese and nonobese patient. Clin Orthop Relat Res 175–179.
33.Valiyeva, E, Russell, LB, Miller, JE & Safford, MM (2006) Lifestyle-related risk factors and risk of future nursing home admission. Arch Intern Med 166, 985–990.
34.Legner, VJ, Doerner, D, Reilly, DF & McCormick, WC (2004) Risk factors for nursing home placement following major nonemergent surgery. Am J Med 117, 82–86.
35.Lubitz, JD & Riley, GF (1993) Trends in Medicare payments in the last year of life. N Engl J Med 328, 1092–1096.
36.Waldo, DR, Sonnefeld, ST, McKusick, DR & Arnett, RH 3rd (1989) Health expenditures by age group, 1977 and 1987. Health Care Financ Rev 10, 111–120.
37.Martineau, P, Filion, KB, Huk, OL, Zukor, DJ, Eisenberg, MJ & Antoniou, J (2005) Primary hip arthroplasty costs are greater in low-volume than in high-volume Canadian hospitals. Clin Orthop Relat Res 152–156.
38.Melton, LJ 3rd (1996) History of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Mayo Clin Proc 71, 266–274.
39.US Census Bureau (2000) 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Public Use Microdata Sample, United States. http://www.census.gov (accessed September 2008).
40.Rowland, ML (1990) Self-reported weight and height. Am J Clin Nutr 52, 1125–1133.
41.Bozic, KJ, Katz, P, Cisternas, M, Ono, L, Ries, MD & Showstack, J (2005) Hospital resource utilisation for primary and revision total hip arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am 87, 570–576.
42.Iezzoni, LI, Foley, SM, Daley, J, Hughes, J, Fisher, ES & Heeren, T (1992) Comorbidities, complications, and coding bias. Does the number of diagnosis codes matter in predicting in-hospital mortality? JAMA 267, 2197–2203.
43.Mears, SC, Bawa, M, Pietryak, P, Jones, LC, Rajadhyaksha, AD, Hungerford, DS & Mont, MA (2002) Coding of diagnoses, comorbidities, and complications of total hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res 164–170.
44.Hogan, P, Dall, T & Nikolov, P (2003) Economic costs of diabetes in the US in 2002. Diabetes Care 26, 917–932.
45.Nichols, GA & Brown, JB (2002) The impact of cardiovascular disease on medical care costs in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 25, 482–486.
46.Andreyeva, T, Sturm, R & Ringel, JS (2004) Moderate and severe obesity have large differences in health care costs. Obes Res 12, 1936–1943.
47.Marzetti, E & Leeuwenburgh, C (2006) Skeletal muscle apoptosis, sarcopenia and frailty at old age. Exp Gerontol 41, 1234–1238.
48.Gallagher, D, Visser, M, Sepulveda, D, Pierson, RN, Harris, T & Heymsfield, SB (1996) How useful is body mass index for comparison of body fatness across age, sex, and ethnic groups? Am J Epidemiol 143, 228–239.
49.Smalley, KJ, Knerr, AN, Kendrick, ZV, Colliver, JA & Owen, OE (1990) Reassessment of body mass indices. Am J Clin Nutr 52, 405–408.
50.Vincent, HK, Weng, JP & Vincent, KR (2007) Effect of obesity on inpatient rehabilitation outcomes after total hip arthroplasty. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 522–530.