Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Food, youth and the Mediterranean diet in Spain. Development of KIDMED, Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents

  • Lluís Serra-Majem (a1) (a2), Lourdes Ribas (a2), Joy Ngo (a2), Rosa M Ortega (a3), Alicia García (a2), Carmen Pérez-Rodrigo (a4) and Javier Aranceta (a4)...

Abstract

Objective:

To evaluate dietary habits in Spanish children and adolescents based on a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index tool, which considers certain principles sustaining and challenging traditional healthy Mediterranean dietary patterns.

Design:

Observational population-based cross-sectional study. A 16-item Mediterranean Diet Quality Index was included in data gathered for the EnKid study (in which two 24-hour recalls, a quantitative 169-item food-frequency questionnaire and a general questionnaire about socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle items were administered).

Setting:

Spain.

Subjects:

In total, 3850 children and youths aged 2–24 years residing in Spain.

Results:

Of the sample, 4.2% showed very low KIDMED index results, 49.4% had intermediate values and 46.4% had high index results. Important geographical differences were seen, with subjects from the Northeast showing the most favourable outcomes (52% with elevated scores vs. 37.5% of those from the North). Lower percentages of high diet quality were observed in low socio-economic groups, compared with middle and upper income cohorts (42.8%, 47.6% and 54.9%, respectively). Large cities had more positive results and only slight variations were seen for gender and age.

Conclusions:

The KIDMED index, the first to evaluate the adequacy of Mediterranean dietary patterns in children and youth, confirms that this collective is undergoing important changes, which makes them a priority target for nutrition interventions. Results challenge certain commonly perceived notions tied to income level, population size and diet quality.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Food, youth and the Mediterranean diet in Spain. Development of KIDMED, Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Food, youth and the Mediterranean diet in Spain. Development of KIDMED, Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Food, youth and the Mediterranean diet in Spain. Development of KIDMED, Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email lserra@dcc.ulpgc.es

References

Hide All
1Trichopoulou, A, Lagiou, P. Healthy traditional Mediterranean diet: an expression of culture, history, and lifestyle. Nutrition Reviews 1997; 55: 383–9.
2Willett, WC, Sacks, F, Trichopoulou, A, Drescher, G, Ferro-Luzzi, A, Helsing, E, et al. Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; 61(Suppl. 6): 1402S–6S.
3Serra Majem, L. ¿Más beneficios de la dieta mediterránea? Nutrición y Obesidad 2001; 4: 43–6.
4Keys, A. Mediterranean diet and public health: personal reflections. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; 61(Suppl. 6): 1321S–3S.
5Serra-Majem, L, Santana, JF, Salmona, E. Dietary habits and nutrient status in Spain. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 2000; 87: 127–59.
6Serra-Majem, L, Ferro-Luzzi, A, Bellizzi, M, Salleras, L. Nutrition policies in Mediterranean Europe. Nutrition Reviews 1997; 55(Suppl. 2): S42–57.
7Serra Majem, L, Ribas, L. Hábitos alimentarios y consumo de alimentos en España. Dieta mediterránea. In: Serra-Majem, L, Aranceta, J, Mataix, J, eds. Nutrición y Salud Pública. Métodos, Bases Científicas y Aplicaciones. Barcelona: Masson, 1995; 303–10.
8Serra Majem, L, Ngo de la Cruz, J, eds. ¿Qué es la Dieta Mediterránea? Barcelona: Nexus Ediciones, 2002; 1221.
9Serra Majem, L, Aranceta Bartrina, J, Ribas Barba, L, Pérez Rodrigo, C, García Closas, R. Estudio enKid: objetivos y metodología. In: Serra-Majem, L, Aranceta, J, eds. Desayuno y Equilibrio Alimentario. Estudio enKid. Barcelona: Masson, 2000; 18.
10Serra-Majem, L, García-Closas, R, Ribas, L, Pérez-Rodrigo, C, Aranceta, J. Food patterns of Spanish schoolchildren and adolescents: The enKid Study. Public Health Nutrition 2001; 4: 1433–8.
11García Closas, R, Serra Majem, LI. Encuestas alimentarias en la infancia y adolescencia. Archivos de Pediatría 2000; 51(3): 146–56.
12Serra Majem, L, Ribas, L, García Closas, R, Ramon, JM, Salvador, G, Farran, A, et al. Llibre Blanc: Avaluació de l'Estat Nutricional de la Població Catalana (1992–93). Barcelona: Department de Sanitat i Seguretat Social, Generalitat de Catalunya, 1996; 1252.
13Serra-Majem, L, Ribas Barba, L, Armas Navarro, A. Equipo investigador de ENCA 1997–98. Encuesta Nutricional de Canarias 1997–98. Ingesta de Energía y Nutrientes y Riesgo de Ingestas Inadecuadas. Archiros Latino-americanos de Nutrición 2002; 50(Suppl. 1): 75225.
14Hercberg, S, Preziosi, P, Galan, P, Deheeger, M, Papoz, L, Dupin, H. Apports nutritionnels d'un échantillon représentatif de la population du Val-de-Marne: III. Les apports en minéraux et vitamines. Revue d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique 1991; 39: 245–61.
15Guerra, A, Feldl, F, Koletzko, B. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids in healthy Portuguese children: is the Mediterranean diet disappearing? Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 2001; 45: 7881.
16Greco, L, Musmarra, F, Franzese, C, Auricchio, S. Early childhood feeding practices in southern Italy: is the Mediterranean diet becoming obsolete? Study of 450 children aged 6–32 months in Campania, Italy. Cultural Paediatric Association. Acta Paediatrica 1998; 87: 250–6.
17Cruz, JA. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents over Europe–Southern Europe. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 54(Suppl. 1): S29–35.
18Avellone, G, Di Garbo, V, Panno, AV, Cordova, R, Abruzzese, G, Rotolo, G, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and dietary habits in secondary school children in southern Italy. International Angiology 1994; 13: 148–53.
19Serra-Majem, L, Helsing, E, eds. Changing patterns of fat intake in Mediterranean countries. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993; 47(Suppl. 1): S1–100.
20Alberti-Fidanza, A, Fidanza, F. Mediterranean Adequacy Index of Italian diets. Public Health Nutrition 2004; 7: 937–41.
21Trichopoulou, A, Kouris-Blazos, A, Wahlqvist, ML, Gnardellis, C, Lagiou, P, Polychronopoulos, E, et al. Diet and overall survival in elderly people. British Medical Journal 1995; 311(7018): 1457–60.
22Aranceta Bartrina, J, Pérez Rodrigo, C. Consumo de Alimentos y Estado Nutricional de la Población de Bilbao. Guías Nutricionales para la Población Escolar. Bilbao: Área de Salud y Consumo, Excmo, Ayuntamiento de Bilbao. 1996.
23Petridou, E, Malamou, H, Doxiadis, S, Pantelakis, S, Kanellopoulou, G, Toupadaki, N, et al. Blood lipids in Greek adolescents and their relation to diet, obesity, and socioeconomic factors. Annals of Epidemiology 1995; 5: 286–91.
24De Lorgeril, M, Salen, P. Wine ethanol, platelets, and Mediterranean diet. Lancet 1999; 353: 1067.
25De la Torre-Boronat, MC. Scientific basis for the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet. Drugs under Experimental and Clinical Research 1999; 25: 155–61.
26Birch, LL, Fisher, JO. Development of eating behaviours among children and adolescents. Pediatrics 1998; 101: 539–49.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Food, youth and the Mediterranean diet in Spain. Development of KIDMED, Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents

  • Lluís Serra-Majem (a1) (a2), Lourdes Ribas (a2), Joy Ngo (a2), Rosa M Ortega (a3), Alicia García (a2), Carmen Pérez-Rodrigo (a4) and Javier Aranceta (a4)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.