1.Popkin, BM & Doak, CM (1998) The obesity epidemic is a worldwide phenomenon. Nutr Rev 56, 106–114.
2.World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 894. Geneva: WHO.
3.Rossner, S (2002) Obesity: the disease of the twenty-first century. Int J Obes 6, Suppl. 4, S2–S4.
4.Ogden, CL, Carroll, MD, Curtin, LR et al. (2006) Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 295, 1549–1555.
6.Birmingham, CL, Mller, JL, Palepu, A et al. (1999) The cost of obesity in Canada. CMAJ 160, 483–488.
8.Kannel, WB, D’Agosting, RB & Cobb, JL (1996) Effect of weight on cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 195–225.
9.Van den Brandt, PA, Spiegelman, D & Yaun, SS (2000) Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 152, 514–527.
10.Resnik, HE, Valsania, P, Halter, JB et al. (2000) Relations of weight gain and weight loss on subsequent diabetes risk in overweight adults. J Epidemiol Community Health 54, 596–602.
11.Magnusson, PKE, Rasmussen, F, Lawlor, DA et al. (2006) Association of body mass index with suicide mortality: a prospective cohort study of more than one million men. Am J Epidemiol 163, 1–8.
12.Tikkinen, KAO, Auvinen, A, Huhtala, H et al. (2006) Nocturia and obesity: a population-based study in Finland. Am J Epidemiol 163, 1003–1011.
13.Yong, LC, Kuller, LH, Rutan, G et al. (1993) Longitudinal study of blood pressure: changes and determinants from adolescence to middle age. The Dormont High School Follow-up Study, 1957–1963 and 1989–1990. Am J Epidemiol 138, 973–983.
14.Huang, Z, Willet, WC, Mancon, JE et al. (1998) Body weight, weight change, and risk for hypertension in women. Ann Intern Med 128, 81–88.
15.Ford, ES (1999) Body mass index and colon cancer in a national sample of adult US men and women. Am J Epidemiol 150, 390–398.
16.Bagust, A, Roberts, BL, Haycox, AK et al. (1999) The additional cost of obesity to the health service and the potential for resource savings from effective interventions. Eur J Public Health 9, 258–264.
17.Klumbiene, J, Petkeviciene, J, Helasoja, V et al. (2004) Sociodemographic and health behaviour factors associated with obesity in adult populations in Estonia, Finland and Lithuania. Eur J Public Health 14, 390–394.
18.Sobal, J & Stunkard, AJ (1989) Socioeconomic status and obesity: a review of the literature. Psychol Bull 105, 260–275.
19.The INCLEN Multicentre Collaborative Group (1994) Socioeconomic status and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a multicentre collaborative study in the International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN). J Clin Epidemiol 47, 1401–1409.
20.Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, S & Lahelma, E (1999) The association of body mass index with social and economic disadvantage in women and men. Int J Epidemiol 28, 445–449.
21.Laurier, D, Guiguet, M, Chau, NP et al. (1992) Prevalence of obesity: a comparative survey in France, United Kingdom and the United States. Int J Obes 16, 565–572.
22.Molarius, A, Seidell, JC, San, S et al. (2000) Educational level, relative body weight, and changes in their association over 10 years: an international perspective from the WHO MONICA Project. Am J Public Health 90, 1260–1268.
23.Wamala, SP, Wolk, A & Orth-Gomer, K (1997) Determinants of obesity in relation to socioeconomic status among middle-aged Swedish women. Prev Med 26, 734–744.
24.Reddy, BN (1998) Body mass index and its association with socioeconomic and behavioural variables among socioeconomically heterogeneous populations of Andhra Pradesh, India. Hum Biol 70, 901–917.
25.Nube, M, Asenso-Okyere, WK & van den Boom, GJ (1998) Body mass index as indicator of standard of living in developing countries. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 136–144.
26.Jeffery, RW, Forster, JL, Folsom, AR et al. (1989) The relationship between social status and body mass index in the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Int J Obes 13, 59–67.
27.Kawada, T (2004) Difference of body mass index stratified by the period of smoking cessation from a cross-sectional study. Arch Med Res 35, 181–184.
28.Laaksonen, M, Rahkonen, O & Prattala, R (1998) Smoking status and relative weight by educational level in Finland, 1978–1995. Prev Med 27, 431–437.
29.Rasky, E, Stronegger, WJ & Freidl, W (1996) The relationship between body weight and patterns of smoking in women and men. Int J Epidemiol 25, 1208–1212.
30.Molarius, A, Seidell, JC, Sans, S et al. (1997) Smoking and relative body weight: an international perspective from the WHO MONICA Project. J Epidemiol Community Health 51, 252–260.
31.Saarni, SE, Pietiläinen, K, Kantonen, S et al. (2009) Association of smoking in adolescence with abdominal obesity in adulthood: a follow-up study of 5 birth cohorts of Finnish twins. Am J Public Health 99, 348–354.
32.Bakhshi, E, Eshraghian, MR, Mohammad, K et al. (2008) A comparison of two methods for estimating odds ratios: results from the National Health Survey. BMC Med Res Methodol 8, 78.
33.Bakhshi, E, Eshraghian, MR, Mohammad, K et al. (2008) The positive association between number of children and obesity in Iranian women and men: results from the National Health Survey. BMC Public Health 8, 213.
34.Akhvan-Tiab, A, Klishadi, R, Sadri, GH et al. (2003) Prevalence of obesity in central part of Iran. Healthy heart project. J Gazvin Univ of Med Sci 26, 27–35.
35.Azadbakht, L, Mirmiran, P & Azizi, F (2004) Prevalence and associates of obesity in Tehranian adults. Tehran Lipid Glucose Study. Int J Endocrinol Metab 5, Suppl. 1, 34–38.
36.Ghaderipour, M, Mohamifard, N, Asghari, S et al. (2003) Prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in Esfahan. J Ghazvin Univ Med Sci 26, 26–64.
37.Hajian-Tilaki, KO & Heidari, B (2007) Prevalence of obesity, central obesity and the associated factors in urban population aged 20–70 years, in the north of Iran: a population-based study and regression approach. Obes Rev 8, 3–10.
38.Hajian-Tilaki, KO & Heidari, B (2009) Association of educational level with risk of obesity and abdominal obesity in Iranian adults. J Public Health (Epublication ahead of print version).
39.Marques-Vidal, P, Bochud, M, Mooser, V et al. (2008) Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in the Lausanne population. BMC Public Health 8, 330.
40.Aekplakorn, W, Hogan, MC, Chongsuvivatwong, V et al. (2007) Trends in obesity and associations with education and urban or rural residence in Thailand. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 3113–3121.
41.Jacoby, E, Goldstein, J, López, A et al. (2003) Social class, family, and life-style factors associated with overweight and obesity among adults in Peruvian cities. Prev Med 37, 396–405.
42.Yoon, YS, Oh, SW & Park, HS (2006) Socioeconomic status in relation to obesity and abdominal obesity in Korean adults: a focus on sex differences. Obesity 14, 909–919.
43.Schooling, CM, Jiang, CQ, Lam, TH et al. (2008) Life-course origins of social inequalities in metabolic risk in the population of a developing country. Am J Epidemiol 167, 419–428.
44.Kim, MH, Kim, MK, Choi, BY et al. (2005) Educational disparities in the metabolic syndrome in a rapidly changing society – the case of South Korea. Int J Epidemiol 34, 1266–1273.
45.Mohtasham-Amiri, Z, Maddah, M, Nagshpour, P et al. (2003) A study of obesity prevalence in middle age women in Rasht city/Iran. Proceeding of 2nd congress of prevention of non-communicable diseases, Tehran. J Med Res Shahid Beheshti Univ Suppl 27, 260–265.
46.French, SA & Jeffery, RW (1997) Current dieting, weight loss history, and weight suppression: behavioral correlates of three dimensions of dieting. Addict Behv 22, 31–44.
47.Jeffery, RW, French, SA, Forster, JL et al. (1991) Socioeconomic status differences in health behaviors related to obesity: the Healthy Worker Project. Int J Obes 15, 689–696.
48.Griffiths, P & Bently, M (2005) Women of higher socio-economic status are more likely to be overweight in Karnataka, India. Eur J Clin Nutr 95, 1217–1220.
49.Palta, M, Prineas, RJ, Berman, R et al. (1982) Comparison of self-reported and measured height and weight. Am J Epidemiol 115, 223–230.
50.Rowland, ML (1990) Self-reported weight and height. Am J Clin Nutr 52, 1125–1133.
51.Vartiainen, E, Seppala, T, Lillsunde, P et al. (2002) Validation of self reported smoking by serum cotinine measurement in a community-based study. J Epidemiol Community Health 56, 167–170.