1. Moody, A (2016) Adult Obesity and Overweight. Health Survey for England 2015. London: Health and Social Care Information Centre.
2. Bennett, A, Brasher, K & Bridger, R (2011) Body Mass Index and Changes in Body Mass in Royal Navy Personnel 2007–2011. Institute of Naval Medicine Technical Report no. 2011.044. Gosport: INM.
3. Kilminster, S, Roiz de Sa, D & Bridger, R (2008) Obesity in the Royal Naval Service. Institute of Naval Medicine Technical Report no. 2008.019. Gosport: INM.
4. Sundin, J, Fear, NT, Wessely, S et al. (2011) Obesity in the UK Armed Forces: risk factors. Mil Med 176, 507–512.
5. Wood, P (2007) The Prevalence of UK Service Personnel at Risk of Obesity Related Ill Health. Defence Science and Technology Laboratory Report no. DSTL/TR27252. Farnborough: DSTL.
6. Bridger, R, Munnoch, K, Dew, A et al. (2009) Smoking, BMI and psychological strain and fitness in the Naval Service. Occup Med (Lond) 59, 195–196.
7. Bridger, RS, Brasher, K & Bennett, A (2013) Sustaining person–environment fit with a changing workforce. Ergonomics 56, 565–577.
8. McLaughlin, R & Wittert, G (2009) The obesity epidemic: implications for recruitment and retention of defence force personnel. Obes Rev 10, 693–699.
9. Dall, TM, Zhang, Y, Chen, YJ et al. (2007) Cost associated with being overweight and with obesity, high alcohol consumption, and tobacco use within the Military Health System’s TRICARE Prime-Enrolled Population. Am J Health Promot 22, 120–139.
10. Martinez, JA (2000) Body-weight regulation: causes of obesity. Proc Nutr Soc 59, 337–345.
11. Prentice, AM & Jebb, SA (1995) Obesity in Britain: gluttony or sloth? BMJ 311, 437–439.
13. World Health Organization (2004) Global Strategy on Diet Physical Activity and Health. Geneva: WHO.
14. Quintiliani, L, Sattelmair, J & Sorensen, G (2007) The Workplace as a Setting for Interventions to Improve Diet and Promote Physical Activity. Geneva: WHO.
15. Mhurchu, CN, Aston, LM & Jebb, SA (2010) Effects of worksite health promotion interventions on employee diets: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 10, 62.
16. Geaney, F, Kelly, C, Greiner, B et al. (2013) The effectiveness of workplace dietary modification interventions: a systematic review. Prev Med 57, 438–447.
17. Kahn-Marshall, JL & Gallant, MP (2012) Making healthy behaviors the easy choice for employees a review of the literature on environmental and policy changes in worksite health promotion. Health Educ Behav 39, 752–776.
18. Hutchinson, AD & Wilson, C (2012) Improving nutrition and physical activity in the workplace: a meta-analysis of intervention studies. Health Promot Int 27, 238–249.
19. Conn, VS, Hafdahl, AR, Cooper, PS et al. (2009) Meta-analysis of workplace physical activity interventions. Am J Prev Med 37, 330–339.
20. Abraham, C & Graham-Rowe, E (2009) Are worksite interventions effective in increasing physical activity? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Psychol Rev 3, 108–144.
21. Engbers, LH, van Poppel, MN, Paw, MJCA et al. (2005) Worksite health promotion programs with environmental changes: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 29, 61–70.
22. Glanz, K, Rimer, BK & Viswanath, K (2008) Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
23. McLeroy, KR, Bibeau, D, Steckler, A et al. (1988) An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Educ Q 15, 351–377.
24. Green, LW, Richard, L & Potvin, L (1996) Ecological foundations of health promotion. Am J Health Promot 10, 270–281.
25. Sallis, JF, Cervero, RB, Ascher, W et al. (2006) An ecological approach to creating active living communities. Annu Rev Public Health 27, 297–322.
26. Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J et al. (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med 6, e1000097.
27. Hollands, GJ, Shemilt, I, Marteau, TM et al. (2013) Altering micro-environments to change population health behaviour: towards an evidence base for choice architecture interventions. BMC Public Health 13, 1218.
29. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2012)
Methods for the Development of NICE Public Health Guidance. Process and Methods Guide no. 4. London: NICE.
30. Higgins, JP, Altman, DG, Gøtzsche, PC et al. (2011) The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ 343, d5928.
31. Sterne, JA, Hernan, MA, Reeves, BC et al. (2016) ROBINS-I: a tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions. BMJ 355, i4919.
32. Hoffmann, TC, Glasziou, PP, Boutron, I et al. (2014) Better reporting of interventions: template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. BMJ 348, g1687.
33. Michie, S, Richardson, M, Johnston, M et al. (2013) The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Ann Behav Med 46, 81–95.
35. Belanger, BA & Kwon, J (2016) Effectiveness of healthy menu changes in a nontrainee military dining facility. Mil Med 181, 82–89.
36. Bingham, CML, Lahti-Koski, M, Puukka, P et al. (2012) Effects of a healthy food supply intervention in a military setting: positive changes in cereal, fat and sugar containing foods. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9, 91.
37. Crombie, AP, Funderburk, L, Smith, TJ et al. (2013) Effects of modified foodservice practices in military dining facilities on ad libitum nutritional intake of US army soldiers. J Acad Nutr Diet 113, 920–927.
38. Friedl, KE, Klicka, MV, King, N et al. (1995) Effects of reduced fat intake on serum lipids in healthy young men and women at the US Military Academy. Mil Med 160, 527–533.
39. Hjarnoe, L & Leppin, A (2013) Health promotion in the Danish maritime setting: challenges and possibilities for changing lifestyle behavior and health among seafarers. BMC Public Health 13, 1165.
40. Lassen, A, Thorsen, AV, Trolle, E et al. (2004) Successful strategies to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables: results from the Danish ‘6 a day’ Work-site Canteen Model Study. Public Health Nutr 7, 263–270.
41. Sproul, AD, Canter, DD, Schmidt, JB et al. (2003) Does point-of-purchase nutrition labeling influence meal selections? A test in an Army cafeteria. Mil Med 168, 556–560.
42. Thorsen, AV, Lassen, AD, Tetens, I et al. (2010) Long-term sustainability of a worksite canteen intervention of serving more fruit and vegetables. Public Health Nutr 13, 1647–1652.
43. Uglem, S, Kjollesdal, MKR, Frolich, W et al. (2014) Effect of a nutrition intervention on intake of vegetables, fruits, and semi whole grain bread among low and high consumers in the Norwegian National Guard. Mil Med 179, 1013–1020.
44. Uglem, S, Stea, TH, Kjollesdal, MKR et al. (2013) A nutrition intervention with a main focus on vegetables and bread consumption among young men in the Norwegian National Guard. Food Nutr Res 57, 21036.
45. Fiedler, ER, Cortner, DM, Ktenidis, H et al. (1999) Healthy eating in practice: the US Air Force demonstration at basic military training. Appl Prev Psychol 8, 155–163.
46. Allan, J, Querstret, D, Banas, K et al. (2017) Environmental interventions for altering eating behaviours of employees in the workplace: a systematic review. Obes Rev 18, 214–226.
47. Harden, A, Peersman, G, Oliver, S et al. (1999) A systematic review of the effectiveness of health promotion interventions in the workplace. Occup Med (Lond) 49, 540–548.
48. Maes, L, Van Cauwenberghe, E, Van Lippevelde, W et al. (2012) Effectiveness of workplace interventions in Europe promoting healthy eating: a systematic review. Eur J Public Health 22, 677–683.
49. Schröer, S, Haupt, J & Pieper, C (2013) Evidence-based lifestyle interventions in the workplace – an overview. Occup Med (Lond) 64, 8–12.
50. Matson-Koffman, DM, Brownstein, JN, Neiner, JA et al. (2005) A site-specific literature review of policy and environmental interventions that promote physical activity and nutrition for cardiovascular health: what works? Am J Health Promot 19, 167–193.
51. Anderson, LM, Quinn, TA, Glanz, K et al. (2009) The effectiveness of worksite nutrition and physical activity interventions for controlling employee overweight and obesity: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 37, 340–357.
52. Verweij, L, Coffeng, J, van Mechelen, W et al. (2011) Meta‐analyses of workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions on weight outcomes. Obes Rev 12, 406–429.