Skip to main content Accessibility help

Changes in beverage consumption from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study

  • Marianne Skreden (a1), Elling Bere (a1), Linda R Sagedal (a2), Ingvild Vistad (a2) and Nina C Øverby (a1)...



To describe changes in consumption of different types of beverages from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy, and to examine associations with maternal age, educational level and BMI.


Cross-sectional design. Participants answered an FFQ at inclusion into a randomized controlled trial, the Fit for Delivery (FFD) trial, in median gestational week 15 (range: 9–20), reporting current consumption and in retrospect how often they drank the different beverages pre-pregnancy.


Eight local antenatal clinics in southern Norway from September 2009 to February 2013.


Five hundred and seventy-five healthy pregnant nulliparous women.


Pre-pregnancy, 27 % reported drinking alcohol at least once weekly, compared with none in early pregnancy (P<0·001). The percentage of women drinking coffee (38 % v. 10 %, P<0·001), sugar-sweetened beverages (10 % v. 6 %, P=0·011) and artificially sweetened beverages (12 % v. 9 %, P=0·001) at least daily decreased significantly from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy, while the percentage of women who reported to drink water (85 % v. 92 %, P<0·001), fruit juice (14 % v. 20 %, P=0·001) and milk (37 % v. 42 %, P=0·001) at least daily increased significantly. From pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy higher educated women reduced their consumption frequency of coffee significantly more than women with lower education. Older women reduced their consumption frequency of coffee and artificially sweetened beverages and increased their consumption frequency of fruit juice and milk significantly more than younger women.


There is a significant change in beverage consumption from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy among Norwegian nulliparous women.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Changes in beverage consumption from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Changes in beverage consumption from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Changes in beverage consumption from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study
      Available formats


Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Email


Hide All
1. Hanley, B, Dijane, J, Fewtrell, M et al. (2010) Metabolic imprinting, programming and epigenetics – a review of present priorities and future opportunities. Br J Nutr 104, Suppl. 1, S1S25.
2. Gluckman, PD, Hanson, MA, Cooper, C et al. (2008) Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. N Engl J Med 359, 6173.
3. Kapur, A (2011) Pregnancy: a window of opportunity for improving current and future health. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 115, Suppl. 1, S50S51.
4. Brantsaeter, AL, Abel, MH, Haugen, M et al. (2013) Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women. Nutrients 5, 424440.
5. Alvik, A, Aalen, OO & Lindemann, R (2013) Early fetal binge alcohol exposure predicts high behavioral symptom scores in 5.5-year-old children. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 37, 19541962.
6. CARE Study Group (2008) Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of fetal growth restriction: a large prospective observational study. BMJ 337, a2332.
7. Sengpiel, V, Elind, E, Bacelis, J et al. (2013) Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with birth weight but not with gestational length: results from a large prospective observational cohort study. BMC Med 11, 42.
8. Stagnaro-Green, A & Pearce, EN (2013) Iodine and pregnancy: a call to action. Lancet 382, 292293.
9. Barker, D, Barker, M, Fleming, T et al. (2013) Developmental biology: support mothers to secure future public health. Nature 504, 209211.
10. Szwajcer, EM, Hiddink, GJ, Maas, L et al. (2008) Nutrition-related information-seeking behaviours of women trying to conceive and pregnant women: evidence for the life course perspective. Fam Pract 25, Suppl. 1, i99i104.
11. Phelan, S (2010) Pregnancy: a ‘teachable moment’ for weight control and obesity prevention. Am J Obstet Gynecol 202, 135, e131e138.
12. Norwegian Directorate of Health (2009) Gravid. (accessed June 2014).
13. Wolf, A, Bray, GA & Popkin, BM (2008) A short history of beverages and how our body treats them. Obes Rev 9, 151164.
14. Graham, JE, Mayan, M, McCargar, LJ et al. (2013) Making compromises: a qualitative study of sugar consumption behaviors during pregnancy. J Nutr Educ Behav 45, 578585.
15. Chen, LW, Low, YL, Fok, D et al. (2014) Dietary changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian women: the GUSTO birth cohort study. Public Health Nutr 17, 19391948.
16. Bay, B & Kesmodel, US (2011) Prenatal alcohol exposure – a systematic review of the effects on child motor function. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 90, 210226.
17. Henderson, J, Gray, R & Brocklehurst, P (2007) Systematic review of effects of low–moderate prenatal alcohol exposure on pregnancy outcome. BJOG 114, 243252.
18. Johansen, AM, Wilcox, AJ, Lie, RT et al. (2009) Maternal consumption of coffee and caffeine-containing beverages and oral clefts: a population-based case–control study in Norway. Am J Epidemiol 169, 12161222.
19. Olsen, SF, Halldorsson, TI, Willett, WC et al. (2007) Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 11041110.
20. Lewis, SJ, Zuccolo, L, Davey Smith, G et al. (2012) Fetal alcohol exposure and IQ at age 8: evidence from a population-based birth-cohort study. PLoS One 7, e49407.
21. Skogerbo, A, Kesmodel, US, Denny, CH et al. (2013) The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children: a prospective cohort study on 1628 children. BJOG 120, 10421050.
22. Englund-Ogge, L, Brantsaeter, AL, Haugen, M et al. (2012) Association between intake of artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages and preterm delivery: a large prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 552559.
23. Feldman, HS, Jones, KL, Lindsay, S et al. (2012) Prenatal alcohol exposure patterns and alcohol-related birth defects and growth deficiencies: a prospective study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 36, 670676.
24. Bakker, R, Steegers, EA, Obradov, A et al. (2010) Maternal caffeine intake from coffee and tea, fetal growth, and the risks of adverse birth outcomes: the Generation R Study. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 16911698.
25. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2010) ACOG Committee Opinion No. 462: moderate caffeine consumption during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 116, 467468.
26. Schulze, MB, Manson, JE, Ludwig, DS et al. (2004) Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. JAMA 292, 927934.
27. Halldorsson, TI, Strom, M, Petersen, SB et al. (2010) Intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks and risk of preterm delivery: a prospective cohort study in 59,334 Danish pregnant women. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 626633.
28. Crozier, SR, Robinson, SM, Godfrey, KM et al. (2009) Women’s dietary patterns change little from before to during pregnancy. J Nutr 139, 19561963.
29. Rifas-Shiman, SL, Rich-Edwards, JW, Willett, WC et al. (2006) Changes in dietary intake from the first to the second trimester of pregnancy. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 20, 3542.
30. Pinto, E, Barros, H & dos Santos Silva, I (2009) Dietary intake and nutritional adequacy prior to conception and during pregnancy: a follow-up study in the north of Portugal. Public Health Nutr 12, 922931.
31. Olafsdottir, AS, Skuladottir, GV, Thorsdottir, I et al. (2006) Maternal diet in early and late pregnancy in relation to weight gain. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 492499.
32. Verbeke, W & De Bourdeaudhuij, I (2007) Dietary behaviour of pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Appetite 48, 7886.
33. Rodriguez-Bernal, CL, Ramon, R, Quiles, J et al. (2013) Dietary intake in pregnant women in a Spanish Mediterranean area: as good as it is supposed to be? Public Health Nutr 16, 13791389.
34. Sagedal, LR, Overby, NC, Lohne-Seiler, H et al. (2013) Study protocol: fit for delivery – can a lifestyle intervention in pregnancy result in measurable health benefits for mothers and newborns? A randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 13, 132.
35. World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 894. (accessed June 2014).
36. Hellevik, O (2009) Linear versus logistic regression when the dependent variable is a dichotomy. Quality & Quantity 43, 5974.
37. Gray, R (2013) Low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy and child development – moving beyond observational studies. BJOG 120, 10391041.
38. Crozier, SR, Robinson, SM, Borland, SE et al. (2009) Do women change their health behaviours in pregnancy? Findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 23, 446453.
39. Jones, KL, Smith, DW, Ulleland, CN et al. (1973) Pattern of malformation in offspring of chronic alcoholic mothers. Lancet 1, 12671271.
40. Richardson, S, Browne, ML, Rasmussen, SA et al. (2011) Associations between periconceptional alcohol consumption and craniosynostosis, omphalocele, and gastroschisis. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 91, 623630.
41. Norwegian Directorate of Health (2011) Før du blir gravid. (accessed June 2014).
42. Luton, D, Forestier, A, Courau, S et al. (2014) Preconception care in France. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 125, 144145.
43. Norwegian Directorate of Health (2012) Norkost 3. A Nationwide Dietary Survey Among Women and Men aged 18–70 Years. (accessed June 2014).
44. Daniels, MC & Popkin, BM (2010) Impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review. Nutr Rev 68, 505521.
45. Pan, A, Malik, VS, Hao, T et al. (2013) Changes in water and beverage intake and long-term weight changes: results from three prospective cohort studies. Int J Obes (Lond) 37, 13781385.
46. Pan, A, Malik, VS, Schulze, MB et al. (2012) Plain-water intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 14541460.
47. Haugen, M, Vikanes, A, Brantsaeter, AL et al. (2011) Diet before pregnancy and the risk of hyperemesis gravidarum. Br J Nutr 106, 596602.
48. Midthjell, K, Lee, CM, Langhammer, A et al. (2013) Trends in overweight and obesity over 22 years in a large adult population: the HUNT Study, Norway. Clin Obes 3, 1220.
49. Mozaffarian, D, Hao, T, Rimm, EB et al. (2011) Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. N Engl J Med 364, 23922404.
50. Hu, FB (2013) Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Obes Rev 14, 606619.
51. Nielsen, SJ & Popkin, BM (2004) Changes in beverage intake between 1977 and 2001. Am J Prev Med 27, 205210.
52. Norwegian Directorate of Health (2013) Utviklingen i norsk kosthold. Matforsyningsstatistikk. (accessed June 2014).
53. Borgen, I, Aamodt, G, Harsem, N et al. (2012) Maternal sugar consumption and risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous Norwegian women. Eur J Clin Nutr 66, 920925.
54. Schernhammer, ES, Bertrand, KA, Birmann, BM et al. (2012) Consumption of artificial sweetener- and sugar-containing soda and risk of lymphoma and leukemia in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 14191428.
55. Soffritti, M, Belpoggi, F, Manservigi, M et al. (2010) Aspartame administered in feed, beginning prenatally through life span, induces cancers of the liver and lung in male Swiss mice. Am J Ind Med 53, 11971206.
56. Soffritti, M, Padovani, M, Tibaldi, E et al. (2014) The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: the urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation. Am J Ind Med 57, 383397.
57. Rampersaud, GC, Kim, H, Gao, Z et al. (2014) Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars. Nutr Res 34, 134142.
58. Chen, L, Hu, FB, Yeung, E et al. (2012) Prepregnancy consumption of fruits and fruit juices and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study. Diabetes Care 35, 10791082.
59. Northstone, K, Emmett, P & Rogers, I (2008) Dietary patterns in pregnancy and associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 471479.
60. McGowan, CA & McAuliffe, FM (2013) Maternal dietary patterns and associated nutrient intakes during each trimester of pregnancy. Public Health Nutr 16, 97107.
61. Bazzano, LA, Li, TY, Joshipura, KJ et al. (2008) Intake of fruit, vegetables, and fruit juices and risk of diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 31, 13111317.
62. Brantsaeter, AL, Olafsdottir, AS, Forsum, E et al. (2012) Does milk and dairy consumption during pregnancy influence fetal growth and infant birthweight? A systematic literature review. Food Nutr Res 2012, 56.
63. Rifas-Shiman, SL, Rich-Edwards, JW, Kleinman, KP et al. (2009) Dietary quality during pregnancy varies by maternal characteristics in Project Viva: a US cohort. J Am Diet Assoc 109, 10041011.
64. Hackett, A (2011) Food frequency questionnaires: simple and cheap, but are they valid? Matern Child Nutr 7, 109111.
65. Statistics Norway (2014) Population’s level of education 1, October 2013. (accessed July 2014).
66. Norwegian Institute of Public Health (2013) Årstabeller for Medisinsk fødselsregister 2011. Fødsler i Norge. (accessed June 2014).
67. Misra, A & Ganda, OP (2007) Migration and its impact on adiposity and type 2 diabetes. Nutrition 23, 696708.
68. Overby, NC, Hillesund, ER, Sagedal, LR et al. (2012) The Fit for Delivery study: rationale for the recommendations and test–retest reliability of a dietary score measuring adherence to 10 specific recommendations for prevention of excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Matern Child Nutr (Epublication ahead of print version).
69. Westerterp, KR & Goris, AH (2002) Validity of the assessment of dietary intake: problems of misreporting. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 5, 489493.
70. McGowan, CA & McAuliffe, FM (2012) Maternal nutrient intakes and levels of energy underreporting during early pregnancy. Eur J Clin Nutr 66, 906913.
71. Olafsdottir, AS, Thorsdottir, I, Gunnarsdottir, I et al. (2006) Comparison of women’s diet assessed by FFQs and 24-hour recalls with and without underreporters: associations with biomarkers. Ann Nutr Metab 50, 450460.
72. Szwajcer, EM, Hiddink, GJ, Koelen, MA et al. (2005) Nutrition-related information-seeking behaviours before and throughout the course of pregnancy: consequences for nutrition communication. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, Suppl. 1, S57S65.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed