Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Associations of psychosocial factors with fruit and vegetable intake among African-Americans

  • Joanne L Watters (a1), Jessie A Satia (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4) and Joseph A Galanko (a4)

Abstract

Objective

To examine associations of various psychosocial factors with fruit and vegetable intake in African-American adults.

Methods

A cross-sectional survey of a population-based sample of 658 African-Americans, aged 18–70 years, in North Carolina. Information was collected on diet-related psychosocial (predisposing, reinforcing and enabling) factors based on the PRECEDE (Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation) planning framework; demographic, lifestyle and behavioural characteristics, and fruit and vegetable intake.

Results

The mean participant age was 43.9 years (standard deviation 11.6), 57% were female and 76% were overweight/obese. Participants expressed healthy beliefs regarding many of, but not all, the psychosocial factors. For example, although half of the respondents believed it is important to eat a diet high in fruits/vegetables, only 26% knew that ≥ 5 daily servings are recommended. The strongest associations of the psychosocial factors with fruit/vegetable intake were for predisposing factors (e.g. belief in the importance of a high fruit/vegetable diet and knowledge of fruit/vegetable recommendations) and one reinforcing factor (social support), with differences between the healthiest and least healthy responses of 0.5–1.0 servings per day. There was evidence of effect modification by gender in associations between psychosocial factors and fruit/vegetable consumption (e.g. self-efficacy was only significant in women), with higher intakes and generally healthier responses to the psychosocial variables in women than men.

Conclusions

Interventions to increase fruit/vegetable intake in African-Americans may be more effective if they focus primarily on predisposing factors, such as knowledge, self-efficacy and attitudes, but not to the exclusion of reinforcing and enabling factors. The psychosocial factors that are targeted may also need to be somewhat different for African-American men and women.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Associations of psychosocial factors with fruit and vegetable intake among African-Americans
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Associations of psychosocial factors with fruit and vegetable intake among African-Americans
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Associations of psychosocial factors with fruit and vegetable intake among African-Americans
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email: jsatia@unc.edu

References

Hide All
1World Cancer Research Fund. Food, Nutrition, and Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research, 1997.
2Bazzano, LA, He, J, Ogden, LG, Loria, CM, Vupputuri, S, Myers, L, et al. . Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 76: 93–9.
3Key, TJ, Schatzkin, A, Willett, WC, Allen, NE, Spencer, EA, Travis, RC. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of cancer. Public Health Nutrition 2004; 7: 187200.
4Ford, ES, Mokdad, AH. Fruit and vegetable consumption and diabetes mellitus incidence among US adults. Preventive Medicine 2001; 32: 33–9.
5Willett, WC . Diet and cancer. Oncologist 2000; 5: 393404.
6American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Statistics for African Americans. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association, 2005.
7American Heart Association. Cardiovascular Statistics. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association, 2006.
8American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans 2005–2006. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2006.
9Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.
10US Department of Agriculture. Development of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 6th ed. Washington DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, US Department of Agriculture, 2005.
11North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003.
12Subar, AF, Heimendinger, J, Patterson, BH, Krebs-Smith, SM, Pivonka, E, Kessler, R. Fruit and vegetable intake in the United States: the baseline survey of the Five A Day for Better Health Program. American Journal of Health Promotion 1995; 9: 352–60.
13Morland, K, Wing, S, Roux, AD. The contextual effect of the local food environment on residents' diets: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. American Journal of Public Health 2002; 92: 1761–8.
14Devine, CM, Wolfe, WS, Frongillo, EA, Bisogni, CA. Life-course events and experiences: association with fruit and vegetable consumption in 3 ethnic groups. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999; 99: 309–14.
15Gary, T, Baptiste-Roberts, K, Gregg, EW, Williams, DE, Beckles, GL, Miller, EJ, et al. . Fruit, vegetable and fat intake in a population-based sample of African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association 2004; 12: 1599–605.
16Fuemmeler, B, Masse, LC, Yaroch, AL, Resnicow, K, Campbell, MK, Carr, C, et al. . Psychosocial mediation of fruit and vegetable consumption in the body and soul effectiveness trial. Health Psychology 2006; 25: 474–83.
17Campbell, MK, Demark-Wahnefried, W, Symons, M, Kalsbeek, WD, Dodds, J, Cowan, A, et al. . Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevention of cancer: the Black Churches United for Better Health project. American Journal of Public Health 1999; 89: 1390–6.
18Shankar, S, Klassen, A. Influences on fruit and vegetable procurement and consumption among urban African-American public housing residents, and potential strategies for intervention. Family Economics and Nutrition Review 2001; 13: 3446.
19Pomerleau, J, Lock, K, Knai, C, McKee, M. Interventions designed to increase adult fruit and vegetable intake can be effective: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of Nutrition 2005; 135: 2486–95.
20Resnicow, K, Campbell, MK, Carr, C, McCarty, F, Wang, T, Periasamy, S, et al. . Body and soul: a dietary intervention conducted through African-American churches. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2004; 27: 97105.
21Kristal, AR, Patterson, RE, Glanz, K, Heimendinger, J, Hebert, JR, Feng, ZD, et al. . Psychosocial correlates of healthful diets: baseline results from the Working Well Study. Preventive Medicine 1995; 24: 221–8.
22Van Duyn, MA, Kristal, AR, Dodd, K, Campbell, MK, Subar, AF, Stables, G, et al. . Association of awareness, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, and stage of dietary change with fruit and vegetable consumption: a national survey. American Journal of Health Promotion 2001; 16: 6978.
23Moser, RP, Green, V, Weber, D, Doyle, C. Psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among African American men. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2005; 37: 306–14.
24Green, LW, Kreuter, MW. The PRECEDE–PROCEED planning model. In: Glanz, K, Lewis, F, Rimer, B, eds. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1997; 359–83.
25Gielen, AC, McDonald, EM. The PRECEDE–PROCEED planning model. In: Glanz, K, Lewis, F, Rimer, B, eds. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3rd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 2002; 409–36.
26Satia, JA, Galanko, JA, Rimer, BK. Methods and strategies to recruit African Americans into cancer prevention surveillance studies. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2005; 14: 718–21.
27Kristal, AR, Curry, SJ, Shattuck, AL, Feng, Z, Li, S. A randomized trial of a tailored, self-help dietary intervention: the Puget Sound Eating Patterns Study. Preventive Medicine 2000; 31: 380–9.
28Ulrich, C, Kristal, AR, White, E, Hunt, JR, Durfy, SJ, Potter, JD. Genetic testing for cancer risk: a population survey on attitudes and intention. Community Geneticist 1998; 1: 213–22.
29Expert Panel on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight in Adults. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: executive summary. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 68: 899917.
30Thompson, FE, Kipnis, V, Subar, AF, Krebs-Smith, SM, Kahle, LL, Midthune, D, et al. . Evaluation of 2 brief instruments and a food-frequency questionnaire to estimate daily number of servings of fruit and vegetables. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 71: 1503–10.
31Warneke, CL, Davis, M, De Moor, C, Baranowski, T. A 7-item versus 31-item food frequency questionnaire for measuring fruit, juice, and vegetable intake among a predominantly African-American population. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2001; 101: 774–9.
32Havas, S, Heimendinger, J, Damron, D, Nicklas, TA, Cowan, A, Beresford, SA, et al. . 5 A Day for better health – nine community research projects to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Public Health Reports 1995; 110: 6879.
33Curran, PJ, West, SG, Finch, JF. The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods 1996; 1: 1629.
34US Census Bureau. Census Summary File 4 – North Carolina. Technical Documentation. Washington, DC: Us Census Bureau, 2003.
35Trudeau, E, Kristal, AR, Li, S, Patterson, RE. Demographic and psychosocial predictors of fruit and vegetable intakes differ: implications for dietary interventions. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1998; 98: 1412–7.
36Satia-Abouta, JA, Patterson, RE, Kristal, AR, Teh, C, Tu, S-P. Psychosocial predictors of diet and acculturation in Chinese American and Chinese Canadian women. Ethnicity & Health 2002; 7: 2139.
37Satia, JA, Kristal, AR, Patterson, RE, Neuhouser, ML, Trudeau, E. Psychosocial factors and dietary habits associated with vegetable consumption. Nutrition 2002; 18: 247–54.
38Glanz, K, Basil, M, Maibach, E, Goldberg, J, Snyder, D. Why Americans eat what they do: taste, nutrition, cost, convenience, and weight control concerns as influences on food consumption. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1998; 98: 1118–26.
39Havas, S, Treiman, K, Langenberg, P, Ballesteros, M, Anliker, J, Damron, D, et al. . Factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among women participating in WIC. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1998; 98: 1141–8.
40Kloek, GC, van Lenthe, FJ, van Nierop, PWM, Mackenbach, JP. Stages of change for fruit and vegetable consumption in deprived neighborhoods. Health Education & Behavior 2004; 31: 223–41.
41Kelsey, K, Kirkley, B, DeVellis, R, Earp, J, Ammerman, A, Keyserling, T, et al. . Social support as a predictor of dietary change in a low-income population. Health Education Research 1996; 11: 383–95.
42Gallant, MP, Dorn, GP. Gender and race differences in the predictors of daily health practices among older adults. Health Education Research 2001; 16: 2131.
43Henry, H, Reimer, K, Smith, C, Reicks, M. Associations of decisional balance, processes of change, and self-efficacy with stages of change for increased fruit and vegetable intake among low-income, African-American mothers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2006; 106: 841–9.
44Kristal, AR, Hedderson, MM, Patterson, RE, Neuhouser, M. Predictors of self-initiated, healthful dietary change. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2001; 101: 762–6.
45Neuhouser, M, Kristal, AR, Patterson, RE. Use of food nutrition labels is associated with lower fat intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999; 99: 4553.
46Patterson, R, Kristal, AR, White, E. Do beliefs, knowledge, and perceived norms about diet and cancer predict dietary change? American Journal of Public Health 1996; 86: 1394–400.
47Willett, WC . Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
48Natarajan, L, Flatt, SW, Sun, X, Gamst, AC, Major, JM, Rock, CL, et al. . Validity and systematic error in measuring carotenoid consumption with dietary self-report instruments. American Journal of Epidemiology 2006; 163: 770–8.
49Black, AE, Cole, TJ. Biased over- or under-reporting is characteristic of individuals whether over time or by different assessment methods. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2001; 101: 7080.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed