Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Excavation of Two Round Barrows at Trelystan, Powys

  • William Britnell (a1), T. C. Darvill, P. Q. Dresser, M. R. Ehrenberg, E. Healey, G. Hillman, H. C. M. Keeley, G. C. Morgan, J. P. Northover and J. L. Wilkinson...

Abstract

The excavation of two adjacent round barrows at Trelystan, Long Mountain, Powys, in 1979, has revealed a complex sequence of Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age funerary structures and traces of Late Neolithic settlement. The earliest structure was a large pit grave, dated to about 2400 bc, which was superseded at about 2200 bc by a settlement represented by stake-walled buildings associated with Grooved Ware. Following this some activity took place, possibly domestic, which is represented by sherds probably derived from several southern Beakers, which by analogy with sites elsewhere are to be dated to a period after about 1850 bc. The subsequent Bronze Age cemetery, dated to between about 1800 and 1500 bc (but possibly continuing later), presents a sequence of burial types and structures which can broadly be seen to illustrate a change from the concept of barrow cemetery to that of cemetery barrow. The earliest burials, which consist of cremations in pits and occasionally accompanied by a Food Vessel, were covered by separate small mounds of stone or turf, or a combination of the two. These were eventually overlain by and amalgamated beneath two larger turf barrows associated with Food Vessel Urns, which employed stake circles in their construction and which acted as repositories for additional cremation burials. The cemetery was sited along a pre-existing boundary fence, set up after the Late Neolithic phase, which was renewed at various times throughout the life of the cemetery in response to changes in its layout. A small undated cemetery of inhumation graves, possibly of the Early Christian period, was founded on the eastern side of the barrows at a later date.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alexander, J., Ozanne, P. C., and Ozanne, A., 1960. ‘Report on the investigation of a Round Barrow on Arreton Down, Isle of Wight’, Proc. Prehist. Soc. 26, 263302.
Allen, D., 1979. ‘Excavations at Hafod Y Nant Criafolen, Brenig, Clwyd, 1973–4’, Post-Medieval Archaeol. 13, 159.
ApSimon, A. M., 1958. ‘Food Vessels’, Bull. Inst. Archaeol. 1, 2436.
Ashbee, P., 1960. The Bronze Age Round Barrow in Britain.
Ashbee, P., 1978. ‘Amesbury Barrow 51: Excavation 1960’, Wiltshire Archaeol. Mag. 70/71, 160.
Ashbee, P., Smith, I. F. and Evans, J. G., 1979. ‘Excavation of three long barrows near Avebury, Wiltshire’, Proc. Prehist. Soc. 45, 207300.
Bradley, R., 1978. ‘Colonization and land use in the Late Neolithic and early Bronze Age’, in Limbrey, S. and Evans, J. G. (eds), The effect of man on the landscape: the Lowland Zone, 95103.
Bradley, R. and Ellison, A., 1975. Rams Hill, Brit. Archaeol. Rep. 19.
Brewster, T. C. M., 1963. The Excavation of Staple Howe.
Britnell, W., 1981. ‘Trelystan’, Current Archaeol. 78, 201–05.
Britton, D., 1968. ‘The Bronzes’, in Cotton, M. A. and Frere, S. S. (eds), ‘Ivinghoe Beacon Excavations 1963–65’, Records of Bucks. 18, Part 3, 204–13.
Burgess, C., 1980. The Age of Stonehenge.
Clark, R. M., 1975. ‘A calibration curve for radiocarbon dates’, Antiquity 49, 251–66.
Clark, J. G. D., Higgs, E. S. and Longworth, I. H., 1960. ‘Excavations at the Neolithic site at Hurst Fen, Mildenhall, Suffolk, 1954, 1957 and 1958’, Proc. Prehist. Soc. 26, 202–45.
Clark, D. L., 1970. The Beaker Pottery of Great Britain and Ireland.
Coles, J. M. (ed.), 1978. Somerset Levels Papers, no. 4.
Darvill, T. C. and Timby, J. R., 1981. ‘Textural Analysis — A review of potential and limitations’, in Freestone, I., Johns, C. and Potter, T. (eds), Current Research in Ceramics: Thin Section Studies. Brit. Mus. Occasional Paper 32.
Davies, E., 1939. ‘A Hoard of Large Flint Flakes from Penmachno, Caernarvonshire’, Archaeol. Cambrensis 94, 106–07.
Ehrenberg, M. R., 1977. Bronze Spearheads from Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire. Brit. Archaeol. Rep. 34.
Ehrenberg, M. R., forthcoming. ‘The Bronze Spearhead’, in Catherall, P., The Archaeology of the Southern Feeder Gas Pipeline.
Forde, C. D., 1939. ‘Disgwylfa Fawr Barrow, Cardiganshire: A Food Vessel and Dug-out Trunk Cremation Burial’. Antiq. J. 19, 9092.
Fox, C., 1943. ‘A Bronze Age Barrow in Llandow Parish’, Archaeologia 89, 89126.
Glasbergen, W., 1954. ‘Barrow Excavations in the Eight Beatitudes. The Bronze Age cemetery between Toterfout and Halve Mijl, North Brabant, I, The excavations’, Palaeohistoria 2, 1124.
Green, H. S., 1980. The Flint Arrowheads of the British Isles, Brit. Archaeol. Rep., 75.
Hillman, G. C., 1981. ‘Reconstructing crop husbandry practices from charred remains of crops’, in Mercer, R. (ed.), Farming practice in British prehistory, 123–62.
Jacobi, R. M., 1976. ‘The Mesolithic of Sussex’, in Drewett, P. L. (ed.), Archaeology in Sussex to AD 1500. C.B.A. Research Report 29.
Jones, G. R. J., 1973. ‘Field Systems of North Wales’, in Baker, A. R. H. and Butlin, R. A. (eds), Studies of Field Systems in the British Isles.
Jones, M., 1980. ‘Carbonized cereals from Grooved Ware Contexts’, Proc. Prehist. Soc. 46, 6163.
Kinnes, I., 1979. Round Barrows and Ring-Ditches in the British Neolithic. Brit. Mus. Occasional Paper, 7.
Lea, J. W., 1975. Soils in Powys. Soil Survey Record, 28, Harpenden.
Lanting, J. N. and Van Der Waals, J. D., 1972. ‘British Beakers as seen from the Continent’, Helinium 12, 2046.
Limbrey, S., 1975. Soil Science and Archaeology.
Longworth, I. H., Wainwright, G. J. and Wilson, K. E., 1971. ‘The Grooved Ware site at Lion Point, Clacton’, in Sieveking, G. de G. (ed.), Prehistoric and Roman Studies. British Museum.
Mackney, D. and Burnham, C. P., 1964. The Soils of the West Midlands. Soil Survey of England and Wales, Bulletin 2, Harpenden.
McInnes, I. J., 1971. Settlements in Later Neolithic Britain’, in Simpson, D. D. A. (ed.), Economy and settlement in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain and Europe, 113–30.
Musson, C., 1970. ‘House-plans and prehistory’, Current Archaeol. 21, 267–77.
Newcomer, M. H., 1971. ‘Some quantitative experiments in handaxe manufacture’, World Archaeol. 3, 8593.
Norman, C., 1977. ‘A Flint Assemblage from Constantine Island, North Cornwall’, Cornish Archaeology 16, 39.
Northover, J. P. and Burgess, C. B., forthcoming. Bronze Age Metallurgy in Wales.
Pierpoint., S., 1980. Social Patterns in Yorkshire Prehistory 3500–750 BC. Brit. Archaeol. Rep. 74.
Pitts, M. W., 1978. ‘Towards an understanding of flint industries in post-glacial England’, Bull. Inst. Archaeol. 15, 179–97.
Pitts, M. W., 1980. Later Stone Implements.
Pitts, M. W. and Jacobi, R. M., 1979. ‘Some aspects of change on flaked stone industries of the Mesolithic and Neolithic in southern Britain’, J. Archaeol. Sci. 6, 163–77.
Pryor, F. M., 1978. Excavations at Fengate, Peterborough, England: Second Report. Royal Ontario Museum Archaeological Monographs, Toronto.
Rowlands, M. J., 1976. The Production and Distribution of Metalwork in the Middle Bronze Age in Southern Britain. Brit. Archaeol. Rep. 31.
Saville, A., 1981. Grimes Graves, Norfolk, Excavations 1971–72, Vol. II: The Flint Assemblage. Dept of Environment Archaeol. Rep. 11.
Savory, H. N., 1955. ‘A Corpus of Welsh Bronze Age Pottery: Beakers’, Bull. Board Celtic Stud. 16, 215–41.
Savory, H. N., 1957. A Corpus of Welsh Bronze Age Pottery: Food Vessels’, Bull. Board Celtic Stud. 17, 196233.
Savory, H. N., 1980. Guide Catalogue of the Bronze Age Collections. National Museum of Wales.
Smith, I. F., 1965. Windmill Hill and Avebury.
Terry, R. D. and Chillinger, G. V., 1955. ‘Summary of “Concerning some additional aids in studying sedimentary formations” by M. S. Shuetsov’, Journ. Sedimentary Petrology 25, 229–34.
Wainwright, G. J., 1972. ‘The Excavation of a Neolithic Settlement on Broome Heath, Ditchingham, Norfolk, England’, Proc. Prehist. Soc. 38, 197.
Wainwright, G.J., 1979. Mount Pleasant, Dorset: Excavations 1970–71. Society of Antiquaries.
Wainwright, G. J., and Longworth, I. H., 1971. Durrington Walls: Excavations 1966–1968. Society of Antiquaries.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed