Skip to main content Accessibility help

Shift-work: is time of eating determining metabolic health? Evidence from animal models

  • Natalí N. Guerrero-Vargas (a1), Estefania Espitia-Bautista (a1), Ruud M. Buijs (a2) and Carolina Escobar (a1)


The circadian disruption in shift-workers is suggested to be a risk factor to develop overweight and metabolic dysfunction. The conflicting time signals given by shifted activity, shifted food intake and exposure to light at night occurring in the shift-worker are proposed to be the cause for the loss of internal synchrony and the consequent adverse effects on body weight and metabolism. Because food elicited signals have proven to be potent entraining signals for peripheral oscillations, here we review the findings from experimental models of shift-work and verify whether they provide evidence about the causal association between shifted feeding schedules, circadian disruption and altered metabolism. We found mainly four experimental models that mimic the conditions of shift-work: protocols of forced sleep deprivation, of forced activity during the normal rest phase, exposure to light at night and shifted food timing. A big variability in the intensity and duration of the protocols was observed, which led to a diversity of effects. A common result was the disruption of temporal patterns of activity; however, not all studies explored the temporal patterns of food intake. According to studies that evaluate time of food intake as an experimental model of shift-work and studies that evaluate shifted food consumption, time of food intake may be a determining factor for the loss of balance at the circadian and metabolic level.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Shift-work: is time of eating determining metabolic health? Evidence from animal models
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Shift-work: is time of eating determining metabolic health? Evidence from animal models
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Shift-work: is time of eating determining metabolic health? Evidence from animal models
      Available formats


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: C. Escobar, fax 5623 2422, email


Hide All
1.Kecklund, G & Axelsson, J (2016) Health consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep. BMJ 355, i5210.
2.Roenneberg, T, Allebrandt, KV, Merrow, M et al. (2012) Social jetlag and obesity. Curr Biol 22, 939943.
3.Wittmann, M, Dinich, J, Merrow, M et al. (2006) Social jetlag: misalignment of biological and social time. Chronobiol Int 23, 497509.
4.Parsons, MJ, Moffitt, TE, Gregory, AM et al. (2015) Social jetlag, obesity and metabolic disorder: investigation in a cohort study. Int J Obes 39, 842848.
5.Reid, KJ & Abbott, SM (2015) Jet lag and shift work disorder. Sleep Med Clin 10, 523535.
6.Escobar, C, Salgado-Delgado, R, Gonzalez-Guerra, E et al. (2011) Circadian disruption leads to loss of homeostasis and disease. Sleep Disord 2011, 964510.
7.Esquirol, Y, Perret, B, Ruidavets, JB et al. (2011) Shift work and cardiovascular risk factors: new knowledge from the past decade. Arch Cardiovasc Dis 104, 636668.
8.Wang, XS, Armstrong, ME, Cairns, BJ et al. (2011) Shift work and chronic disease: the epidemiological evidence. Occup Med (Lond) 61, 7889.
9.Wright, KP Jr, Bogan, RK & Wyatt, JK (2013) Shift work and the assessment and management of shift work disorder (SWD). Sleep Med Rev 17, 4154.
10.Ma, CC, Andrew, ME, Fekedulegn, D et al. (2015) Shift work and occupational stress in police officers. Safety Health Work 6, 2529.
11.Han, K, Trinkoff, AM, Storr, CL et al. (2011) Job stress and work schedules in relation to nurse obesity. J Nurs Adm 41, 488495.
12.Gumenyuk, V, Roth, T, Korzyukov, O et al. (2010) Shift work sleep disorder is associated with an attenuated brain response of sensory memory and an increased brain response to novelty: an ERP study. Sleep 33, 703713.
13.Marquie, JC, Tucker, P, Folkard, S et al. (2015) Chronic effects of shift work on cognition: findings from the VISAT longitudinal study. Occup Environ Med 72, 258264.
14.Meyrer, R, Demling, J, Kornhuber, J et al. (2009) Effects of night shifts in bipolar disorders and extreme morningness. Bipolar Disord 11, 897899.
15.Lee, HY, Kim, MS, Kim, O et al. (2016) Association between shift work and severity of depressive symptoms among female nurses: the Korea Nurses’ Health Study. J Nurs Manag 24, 192200.
16.Trinkoff, AM & Storr, CL (1998) Work schedule characteristics and substance use in nurses. Am J Ind Med 34, 266271.
17.Brum, MC, Filho, FF, Schnorr, CC et al. (2015) Shift work and its association with metabolic disorders. Diabetol Metab Syndr 7, 45.
18.Laermans, J & Depoortere, I (2016) Chronobesity: role of the circadian system in the obesity epidemic. Obes Rev 17, 108125.
19.Wang, F, Zhang, L, Zhang, Y et al. (2014) Meta-analysis on night shift work and risk of metabolic syndrome. Obes Rev 15, 709720.
20.Lucassen, EA, Rother, KI & Cizza, G (2012) Interacting epidemics? Sleep curtailment, insulin resistance, and obesity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1264, 110134.
21.Kivimaki, M, Batty, GD & Hublin, C (2011) Shift work as a risk factor for future type 2 diabetes: evidence, mechanisms, implications, and future research directions. PLoS Med 8, e1001138.
22.Zimberg, IZ, Fernandes Junior, SA, Crispim, CA et al. (2012) Metabolic impact of shift work. Work 41(Suppl 1), 43764383.
23.Espitia-Bautista, E, Velasco-Ramos, M, Osnaya-Ramirez, I et al. (2017) Social jet-lag potentiates obesity and metabolic syndrome when combined with cafeteria diet in rats. Metabolism 72, 8393.
24.McHill, AW & Wright, KP Jr (2017) Role of sleep and circadian disruption on energy expenditure and in metabolic predisposition to human obesity and metabolic disease. Obes Rev 18(Suppl 1), 1524.
25.Buijs, RM, van Eden, CG, Goncharuk, VD et al. (2003) The biological clock tunes the organs of the body: timing by hormones and the autonomic nervous system. J Endocrinol 177, 1726.
26.Takahashi, JS (2015) Molecular components of the circadian clock in mammals. Diabetes Obes Metab 17(Suppl 1), 611.
27.Buijs, RM & Kalsbeek, A (2001) Hypothalamic integration of central and peripheral clocks. Nat Rev Neurosci 2, 521526.
28.Escobar, C, Cailotto, C, Angeles-Castellanos, M et al. (2009) Peripheral oscillators: the driving force for food-anticipatory activity. Eur J Neurosci 30, 16651675.
29.Moran-Ramos, S, Baez-Ruiz, A, Buijs, RM et al. (2016) When to eat? The influence of circadian rhythms on metabolic health: are animal studies providing the evidence? Nutr Res Rev 29, 180193.
30.Yoon, JA, Han, DH, Noh, JY et al. (2012) Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice. PLoS ONE 7, e44053.
31.Johnston, JD (2014) Physiological responses to food intake throughout the day. Nutr Res Rev 27, 107118.
32.Lowden, A, Moreno, C, Holmback, U et al. (2010) Eating and shift work – effects on habits, metabolism and performance. Scand J Work Environ Health 36, 150162.
33.Waterhouse, J, Buckley, P, Edwards, B et al. (2003) Measurement of, and some reasons for, differences in eating habits between night and day workers. Chronobiol Int 20, 10751092.
34.Cain, SW, Filtness, AJ, Phillips, CL et al. (2015) Enhanced preference for high-fat foods following a simulated night shift. Scand J Work Environ Health 41, 288293.
35.Tada, Y, Kawano, Y, Maeda, I et al. (2014) Association of body mass index with lifestyle and rotating shift work in Japanese female nurses. Obesity (Silver Spring) 22, 24892493.
36.Opperhuizen, AL, van Kerkhof, LW, Proper, KI et al. (2015) Rodent models to study the metabolic effects of shiftwork in humans. Front Pharmacol 6, 50.
37.Gronli, J, Meerlo, P, Pedersen, TT et al. (2017) A rodent model of night-shift work induces short-term and enduring sleep and electroencephalographic disturbances. J Biol Rhythms 32, 4863.
38.Bodosi, B, Gardi, J, Hajdu, I et al. (2004) Rhythms of ghrelin, leptin, and sleep in rats: effects of the normal diurnal cycle, restricted feeding, and sleep deprivation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287, R1071R1079.
39.Mavanji, V, Teske, JA, Billington, CJ et al. (2013) Partial sleep deprivation by environmental noise increases food intake and body weight in obesity-resistant rats. Obesity (Silver Spring) 21, 13961405.
40.Barf, RP, Van Dijk, G, Scheurink, AJ et al. (2012) Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats: changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure. Physiol Behav 107, 322328.
41.Venancio, DP & Suchecki, D (2015) Prolonged REM sleep restriction induces metabolic syndrome-related changes: Mediation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Brain Behav Immun 47, 109117.
42.Xu, X, Wang, L, Zhang, Y et al. (2016) Effects of chronic sleep deprivation on glucose homeostasis in rats. Sleep Biol Rhythms 14, 321328.
43.Moraes, DA, Venancio, DP & Suchecki, D (2014) Sleep deprivation alters energy homeostasis through non-compensatory alterations in hypothalamic insulin receptors in Wistar rats. Horm Behav 66, 705712. Oliveira, EM, Visniauskas, B, Sandri, S et al. (2015) Late effects of sleep restriction: potentiating weight gain and insulin resistance arising from a high-fat diet in mice. Obesity (Silver Spring) 23, 391398.
45.Caron, AM & Stephenson, R (2010) Energy expenditure is affected by rate of accumulation of sleep deficit in rats. Sleep 33, 12261235.
46.Martins, PJ, Fernandes, L, de Oliveira, AC et al. (2011) Type of diet modulates the metabolic response to sleep deprivation in rats. Nutr Metab (Lond) 8, 86.
47.Rosa Neto, JC, Lira, FS, Venancio, DP et al. (2010) Sleep deprivation affects inflammatory marker expression in adipose tissue. Lipids Health Dis 9, 125.
48.Vetrivelan, R, Fuller, PM, Yokota, S et al. (2012) Metabolic effects of chronic sleep restriction in rats. Sleep 35, 15111520.
49.Barf, RP, Desprez, T, Meerlo, P et al. (2012) Increased food intake and changes in metabolic hormones in response to chronic sleep restriction alternated with short periods of sleep allowance. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 302, R112R117.
50.Brianza-Padilla, M, Bonilla-Jaime, H, Almanza-Perez, JC et al. (2016) Effects of different periods of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on lipid and glucose metabolism and appetite hormones in rats. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 41, 235243.
51.Barclay, JL, Husse, J, Bode, B et al. (2012) Circadian desynchrony promotes metabolic disruption in a mouse model of shiftwork. PLoS ONE 7, e37150.
52.Husse, J, Hintze, SC, Eichele, G et al. (2012) Circadian clock genes Per1 and Per2 regulate the response of metabolism-associated transcripts to sleep disruption. PLoS ONE 7, e52983.
53.Ho, JM, Barf, RP & Opp, MR (2016) Effects of sleep disruption and high fat intake on glucose metabolism in mice. Psychoneuroendocrinology 68, 4756.
54.Baud, MO, Magistretti, PJ & Petit, JM (2013) Sustained sleep fragmentation affects brain temperature, food intake and glucose tolerance in mice. J Sleep Res 22, 312.
55.Naidoo, N, Davis, JG, Zhu, J et al. (2014) Aging and sleep deprivation induce the unfolded protein response in the pancreas: implications for metabolism. Aging Cell 13, 131141.
56.Tsai, LL & Tsai, YC (2007) The effect of scheduled forced wheel activity on body weight in male F344 rats undergoing chronic circadian desynchronization. Int J Obes 31, 13681377.
57.Leenaars, CH, Kalsbeek, A, Hanegraaf, MA et al. (2012) Unaltered instrumental learning and attenuated body-weight gain in rats during non-rotating simulated shiftwork. Chronobiol Int 29, 344355.
58.Hut, RA, Pilorz, V, Boerema, AS et al. (2011) Working for food shifts nocturnal mouse activity into the day. PLoS ONE 6, e17527.
59.Marti, AR, Meerlo, P, Gronli, J et al. (2016) Shift in food intake and changes in metabolic regulation and gene expression during simulated night-shift work: a rat model. Nutrients 8, 712.
60.Murphy, HM, Wideman, CH & Nadzam, GR (2003) A laboratory animal model of human shift work. Integr Physiol Behav Sci 38, 316328.
61.Salgado-Delgado, RC, Saderi, N, Basualdo Mdel, C et al. (2013) Shift work or food intake during the rest phase promotes metabolic disruption and desynchrony of liver genes in male rats. PLoS ONE 8, e60052.
62.Salgado-Delgado, R, Angeles-Castellanos, M, Buijs, MR et al. (2008) Internal desynchronization in a model of night-work by forced activity in rats. Neuroscience 154, 922931.
63.Dallmann, R & Mrosovsky, N (2006) Scheduled wheel access during daytime: a method for studying conflicting zeitgebers. Physiol Behav 88, 459465.
64.Salgado-Delgado, R, Angeles-Castellanos, M, Saderi, N et al. (2010) Food intake during the normal activity phase prevents obesity and circadian desynchrony in a rat model of night work. Endocrinology 151, 10191029.
65.Fonken, LK, Workman, JL, Walton, JC et al. (2010) Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107, 1866418669.
66.Coomans, CP, van den Berg, SA, Houben, T et al. (2013) Detrimental effects of constant light exposure and high-fat diet on circadian energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. FASEB J 27, 17211732.
67.Kooijman, S, van den Berg, R, Ramkisoensing, A et al. (2015) Prolonged daily light exposure increases body fat mass through attenuation of brown adipose tissue activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112, 67486753.
68.Qian, J, Yeh, B, Rakshit, K et al. (2015) Circadian disruption and diet-induced obesity synergize to promote development of beta-cell failure and diabetes in male rats. Endocrinology 156, 44264436.
69.Polidarova, L, Sladek, M, Sotak, M et al. (2011) Hepatic, duodenal, and colonic circadian clocks differ in their persistence under conditions of constant light and in their entrainment by restricted feeding. Chronobiol Int 28, 204215.
70.Gale, JE, Cox, HI, Qian, J et al. (2011) Disruption of circadian rhythms accelerates development of diabetes through pancreatic beta-cell loss and dysfunction. J Biol Rhythms 26, 423433.
71.Dauchy, RT, Dauchy, EM, Tirrell, RP et al. (2010) Dark-phase light contamination disrupts circadian rhythms in plasma measures of endocrine physiology and metabolism in rats. Comp Med 60, 348356.
72.Wideman, CH & Murphy, HM (2009) Constant light induces alterations in melatonin levels, food intake, feed efficiency, visceral adiposity, and circadian rhythms in rats. Nutr Neurosci 12, 233240.
73.Borniger, JC, Maurya, SK, Periasamy, M et al. (2014) Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms. Chronobiol Int 31, 917925.
74.Aubrecht, TG, Jenkins, R & Nelson, RJ (2015) Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice. Chronobiol Int 32, 557560.
75.Borniger, JC, Weil, ZM, Zhang, N et al. (2013) Dim light at night does not disrupt timing or quality of sleep in mice. Chronobiol Int 30, 10161023.
76.Arble, DM, Bass, J, Laposky, AD et al. (2009) Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17, 21002102.
77.Oosterman, JE, Foppen, E, van der Spek, R et al. (2015) Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats. Chronobiol Int 32, 289298.
78.Bray, MS, Ratcliffe, WF, Grenett, MH et al. (2013) Quantitative analysis of light-phase restricted feeding reveals metabolic dyssynchrony in mice. Int J Obes 37, 843852.
79.Opperhuizen, AL, Wang, D, Foppen, E et al. (2016) Feeding during the resting phase causes profound changes in physiology and desynchronization between liver and muscle rhythms of rats. Eur J Neurosci 44, 27952806.
80.Reznick, J, Preston, E, Wilks, DL et al. (2013) Altered feeding differentially regulates circadian rhythms and energy metabolism in liver and muscle of rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 1832, 228238.
81.Mukherji, A, Kobiita, A & Chambon, P (2015) Shifting the feeding of mice to the rest phase creates metabolic alterations, which, on their own, shift the peripheral circadian clocks by 12 h. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112, E6683E6690.
82.Mukherji, A, Kobiita, A, Damara, M et al. (2015) Shifting eating to the circadian rest phase misaligns the peripheral clocks with the master SCN clock and leads to a metabolic syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112, E6691E6698.
83.Yasumoto, Y, Hashimoto, C, Nakao, R et al. (2016) Short-term feeding at the wrong time is sufficient to desynchronize peripheral clocks and induce obesity with hyperphagia, physical inactivity and metabolic disorders in mice. Metabolism 65, 714727.
84.Reddy, VD & Jagota, A (2014) Effect of restricted feeding on nocturnality and daily leptin rhythms in OVLT in aged male Wistar rats. Biogerontology 15, 245256.
85.Shamsi, NA, Salkeld, MD, Rattanatray, L et al. (2014) Metabolic consequences of timed feeding in mice. Physiol Behav 128, 188201.
86.Rocha, LSD, de Matos, RJB, de Souza, JA et al. (2017) Daytime increase in caloric intake without change in total 24-h caloric intake can increase adiposity but not total bodyweight in rats with inverted feeding pattern. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 42, 931940.
87.Ramirez-Plascencia, OD, Saderi, N, Escobar, C et al. (2017) Feeding during the rest phase promotes circadian conflict in nuclei that control energy homeostasis and sleep-wake cycle in rats. Eur J Neurosci 45, 13251332.
88.Bass, J & Takahashi, JS (2010) Circadian integration of metabolism and energetics. Science 330, 13491354.
89.Sabath, E, Baez-Ruiz, A & Buijs, RM (2015) Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as a consequence of autonomic imbalance and circadian desynchronization. Obes Rev 16, 871882.
90.Menaker, M, Murphy, ZC & Sellix, MT (2013) Central control of peripheral circadian oscillators. Curr Opin Neurobiol 23, 741746.
91.Pevet, P & Challet, E (2011) Melatonin: both master clock output and internal time-giver in the circadian clocks network. J Physiol 105, 170182.
92.Leliavski, A, Dumbell, R, Ott, V et al. (2015) Adrenal clocks and the role of adrenal hormones in the regulation of circadian physiology. J Biol Rhythms 30, 2034.
93.Torra, IP, Tsibulsky, V, Delaunay, F et al. (2000) Circadian and glucocorticoid regulation of Rev-erb alpha expression in liver. Endocrinology 141, 37993806.
94.Pezuk, P, Mohawk, JA, Wang, LA et al. (2012) Glucocorticoids as entraining signals for peripheral circadian oscillators. Endocrinology 153, 47754783.
95.Balsalobre, A, Brown, SA, Marcacci, L et al. (2000) Resetting of circadian time in peripheral tissues by glucocorticoid signaling. Science 289, 23442347.
96.Gomez-Abellan, P, Diez-Noguera, A, Madrid, JA et al. (2012) Glucocorticoids affect 24 h clock genes expression in human adipose tissue explant cultures. PLoS ONE 7, e50435.
97.Kuo, T, McQueen, A, Chen, TC et al. (2015) Regulation of glucose homeostasis by glucocorticoids. Adv Exp Med Biol 872, 99126.
98.Karatsoreos, IN, Bhagat, SM, Bowles, NP et al. (2010) Endocrine and physiological changes in response to chronic corticosterone: a potential model of the metabolic syndrome in mouse. Endocrinology 151, 21172127.
99.Cassone, VM & Natesan, AK (1997) Time and time again: the phylogeny of melatonin as a transducer of biological time. J Biol Rhythms 12, 489497.
100.Pitrosky, B, Kirsch, R, Malan, A et al. (1999) Organization of rat circadian rhythms during daily infusion of melatonin or S20098, a melatonin agonist. Am J Physiol 277, R812R828.
101.Slotten, HA, Pitrosky, B & Pevet, P (1999) Influence of the mode of daily melatonin administration on entrainment of rat circadian rhythms. J Biol Rhythms 14, 347353.
102.Alonso-Vale, MI, Andreotti, S, Mukai, PY et al. (2008) Melatonin and the circadian entrainment of metabolic and hormonal activities in primary isolated adipocytes. J Pineal Res 45, 422429.
103.Brodsky, VY & Zvezdina, ND (2010) Melatonin as the most effective organizer of the rhythm of protein synthesis in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Cell Biol Int 34, 11991204.
104.Navarro-Alarcon, M, Ruiz-Ojeda, FJ, Blanca-Herrera, RM et al. (2014) Melatonin and metabolic regulation: a review. Food Funct 5, 28062832.
105.Wolden-Hanson, T, Mitton, DR, McCants, RL et al. (2000) Daily melatonin administration to middle-aged male rats suppresses body weight, intraabdominal adiposity, and plasma leptin and insulin independent of food intake and total body fat. Endocrinology 141, 487497.
106.Rasmussen, DD, Boldt, BM, Wilkinson, CW et al. (1999) Daily melatonin administration at middle age suppresses male rat visceral fat, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin to youthful levels. Endocrinology 140, 10091012.
107.Amin, AH, El-Missiry, MA & Othman, AI (2015) Melatonin ameliorates metabolic risk factors, modulates apoptotic proteins, and protects the rat heart against diabetes-induced apoptosis. Eur J Pharmacol 747, 166173.
108.Favero, G, Stacchiotti, A, Castrezzati, S et al. (2015) Melatonin reduces obesity and restores adipokine patterns and metabolism in obese (ob/ob) mice. Nutr Res 35, 891900.
109.Colles, SL, Dixon, JB & O'Brien, PE (2007) Night eating syndrome and nocturnal snacking: association with obesity, binge eating and psychological distress. Int J Obes 31, 17221730.
110.Goel, N, Stunkard, AJ, Rogers, NL et al. (2009) Circadian rhythm profiles in women with night eating syndrome. J Biol Rhythms 24, 8594.
111.Sabath, E, Salgado-Delgado, R, Guerrero-Vargas, NN et al. (2014) Food entrains clock genes but not metabolic genes in the liver of suprachiasmatic nucleus lesioned rats. FEBS Lett 588, 31043110.
112.Dearden, L & Balthasar, N (2014) Sexual dimorphism in offspring glucose-sensitive hypothalamic gene expression and physiological responses to maternal high-fat diet feeding. Endocrinology 155, 21442154.
113.Vital, P, Larrieta, E & Hiriart, M (2006) Sexual dimorphism in insulin sensitivity and susceptibility to develop diabetes in rats. J Endocrinol 190, 425432.
114.Trefna, M, Goris, M, Thissen, CMC et al. (2017) The influence of sex and diet on the characteristics of hibernation in Syrian hamsters. J Comp Physiol B 187, 725734.
115.Ingvorsen, C, Karp, NA & Lelliott, CJ (2017) The role of sex and body weight on the metabolic effects of high-fat diet in C57BL/6N mice. Nutr Diabetes 7, e261.
116.Clegg, DJ, Riedy, CA, Smith, KA et al. (2003) Differential sensitivity to central leptin and insulin in male and female rats. Diabetes 52, 682687.
117.Mirick, DK, Bhatti, P, Chen, C et al. (2013) Night shift work and levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and cortisol in men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22, 10791087.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed