House of Commons Health Committee (2001) Tackling Obesity in England. London: The Stationery Office.
The NHS Information Centre (2010) Health Survey for England – 2009: Health and Lifestyles. Leeds, UK: The Health and Social Care Information Centre.
Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance (2011) National Adult Nutritional Survey – Summary Report on Food and Nutrient Intakes, Physical Measurements, Physical Activity Patterns and Food Choice Motives. Ireland: IUNA.
Wang, CY, McPherson, K, Marsh, T
et al. (2011) Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK. Lancet
Nielsen, SJ & Popkin, BM (2003) Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977–1998. JAMA
Smiciklas-Wright, H, Mitchell, DC, Mickle, SJ
et al. (2003) Foods commonly eaten in the United States, 1989–1991 and 1994–1996: are portion sizes changing?
J Am Diet Assoc
Ello-Martin, JA, Ledikwe, JH & Rolls, BJ (2005) The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. Am J Clin Nutr
Young, LR & Nestle, M (2002) The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Am J Public Health
Condrasky, M, Ledikwe, JH, Flood, JE
et al. (2007) Chefs’ opinions of restaurant portion sizes. Obesity
Matthiessen, J, Fagt, S, Biltoft-Jensen, A
et al. (2003) Size makes a difference. Public Health Nutr
Rolls, B, Roe, L & Meengs, J (2006) Larger portion sizes lead to a sustained increase in energy intake over 2 days. J Am Diet Assoc
Schusdziarra, V, Hausmann, M, Wittke, C
et al. (2010) Contribution of energy density and food quantity to short-term fluctuations of energy intake in normal weight and obese subjects. Eur J Nutr
Japur, CC & Diez-Garcia, RW (2010) Food energy content influences food portion size estimation by nutrition students. J Hum Nutr Diet
Kral, T, Roe, L & Rolls, B (2004) Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women. Am J Clin Nutr
Piernas, C & Popkin, BM (2011) Increased portion sizes from energy-dense foods affect total energy intake at eating occasions in US children and adolescents: patterns and trends by age group and sociodemographic characteristics, 1977–2006. Am J Clin Nutr
Burger, KS, Kern, M & Coleman, KJ (2007) Characteristics of self-selected portion size in young adults. J Am Diet Assoc
Berg, C, Lappas, G, Wolk, A
et al. (2009) Eating patterns and portion size associated with obesity in a Swedish population. Appetite
Kelly, MT, Rennie, KL, Wallace, JMW
et al. (2009) Associations between the portion sizes of food groups consumed and measures of adiposity in the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Br J Nutr
Burger, KS, Fisher, JO & Johnson, SL (2011) Mechanisms behind the portion size effect: visibility and bite size. Obesity
Steenhuis, IHM, Leeuwis, FH & Vermeer, WM (2010) Small, medium, large or supersize: trends in food portion sizes in The Netherlands. Public Health Nutr
Young, LR & Nestle, M (2007) Portion sizes and obesity: responses of fast-food companies. J Public Health Policy
Wrieden, WL, Gregor, A & Barton, K (2008) Have food portion sizes in the UK increased over the past 20 years?
Proc Nutr Soc
Benson, C (2009) Increasing portion size in Britain. Soc Biol Hum Aff
Church, S (2008) Trends in Portion Sizes in the UK – A Preliminary Review of Published Information. London, UK: Food Standards Agency.
Driskell, JA, Meckna, BR & Scales, NE (2006) Differences exist in the eating habits of university men and women at fast-food restaurants. Nutr Res
Vermeer, WM, Steenhuis, IHM & Seidell, JC (2010) Portion size: a qualitative study of consumers’ attitudes toward point-of-purchase interventions aimed at portion size. Health Educ Res
Rolls, BJ, Roe, LS, Kral, TVE
et al. (2004) Increasing the portion size of a packaged snack increases energy intake in men and women. Appetite
Raynor, HA & Wing, RR (2007) Package unit size and amount of food: do both influence intake?
Flood, JE, Roe, LS & Rolls, BJ (2006) The effect of increased beverage portion size on energy intake at a meal. J Am Diet Assoc
Rolls, BJ, Roe, LS, Meengs, JS
et al. (2004) Increasing the portion size of a sandwich increases energy intake. J Am Diet Assoc
Rolls, BJ, Morris, EL & Roe, LS (2002) Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal-weight and overweight men and women. Am J Clin Nutr
Levitsky, DA & Youn, T (2004) The more food young adults are served, the more they overeat. J Nutr
Diliberti, N, Bordi, PL, Conklin, MT
et al. (2004) Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. Obes Res
Wansink, B & Kim, J (2005) Bad popcorn in big buckets: portion size can influence intake as much as taste. J Nutr Educ Behav
Jeffery, RW, Rydell, S, Dunn, CL
et al. (2007) Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
Rolls, BJ, Roe, LS & Meengs, JS (2007) The effect of large portion sizes on energy intake is sustained for 11 days. Obesity
Kelly, MT, Wallace, JMW, Robson, PJ
et al. (2009) Increased portion size leads to a sustained increase in energy intake over 4d in normal-weight and overweight men and women. Br J Nutr
Freedman, MR & Brochado, C (2010) Reducing portion size reduces food intake and plate waste. Obesity
Rolls, BJ, Roe, LS & Meengs, JS (2006) Reductions in portion size and energy density of foods are additive and lead to sustained decreases in energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr
Marchiori, D, Waroquier, L & Klein, O (2011) Smaller food item sizes of snack foods influence reduced portions and caloric intake in young adults. J Am Diet Assoc
Raynor, HA, Van Walleghen, EL, Niemeier, H
et al. (2009) Do food provisions packaged in single-servings reduce energy intake at breakfast during a brief behavioral weight-loss intervention?
J Am Diet Assoc
Stroebele, N, Ogden, LG & Hill, JO (2009) Do calorie-controlled portion sizes of snacks reduce energy intake?
Wansink, B, Payne, CR & Shimizu, M (2011) The 100-calorie semi-solution: sub-packaging most reduces intake among the heaviest. Obesity
The British Dietetic Association (2007) Dietitians Hail Return of Balanced Diet Plate. Birmingham, UK: The British Dietetic Association.
Food Standards Agency (2007) The Eatwell Plate. London, UK: Food Standards Agency.
Health Canada (2007) Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide. Canada: Health Canada.
Young, LR & Nestle, M (2003) Expanding portion sizes in the US marketplace: implications for nutrition counseling. J Am Diet Assoc
Anderson, AS, Barton, K, Craigie, A
et al. (2008) Exploration of Adult Food Portion Size Tools. Edinburgh, UK: NHS Health Scotland.
Flynn, MAT, O'Brien, CM, Faulkner, G
et al. (2012) Revision of food-based dietary guidelines for Ireland, phase 1: evaluation of Ireland's food guide. Public Health Nutr
Britten, P, Haven, J & Davis, C (2006) Consumer research for development of educational messages for the MyPyramid food guidance system. J Nutr Educ Behav
Brogden, N & Almiron-Roig, E (2011) Estimated portion sizes of snacks and beverages differ from reference amounts and are affected by appetite status in non-obese men. Public Health Nutr
Institute of Grocery Distribution (2008) Portion Size: a Review of Existing Approaches. England: Institute of Grocery Distribution.
Brown, KA, Timotijevic, L, Barnett, J
et al. (2011) A review of consumer awareness, understanding and use of food-based dietary guidelines. Br J Nutr
QSR International Pty Ltd (2010) NVivo qualitative data analysis software, version 9. Southport, UK: QSR International Pty Ltd.
U.S. Department of Agriculture Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (2005) My Pyramid – Steps to a Healthier You. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.
U.S. Department of Agriculture & U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010) Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Food Standards Agency (2002) Food Portion Sizes, 3rd ed. London: TSO.
Grunert, KG & Wills, JM (2007) A review of European research on consumer response to nutrition information on food labels. J Public Health
Pollard, CM, Daly, AM & Binns, CW (2008) Consumer perceptions of fruit and vegetables serving sizes. Public Health Nutr
Institute of Grocery Distribution (2009) Portion Size Communication in Therapeutic Practice: a Survey of Dietitians and Nutritionists. England: Institute of Grocery Distribution.
The International Life Sciences Institute (2004) National Food Based Dietary Guidelines: Experiences, Implications and Future Directions. Hungary: ILSI.
Hogbin, M, Shaw, A & Anand, RS (1999) Nutrition Insights: Food Portions and Servings how do they Differ? Insight 11. Washington, DC: USDA Centre for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.
The Dietary Guidelines Alliance (2002) A Focus Group Study to Explore Consumer Attitudes Regarding Portion Management and Dietary Fat. Bethesda, MD: Shugoll Research.
Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity (2006) Research to Practice Series No. 2: Portion Size. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Schwartz, J & Byrd-Bredbenner, C (2006) Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults. J Am Diet Assoc
Ueland, O, Cardello, AV, Merrill, EP
et al. (2009) Effect of portion size information on food intake. J Am Diet Assoc
Institute of Grocery Distribution (2009) Portion Size: Understanding the Consumer Perspective. England: Institute of Grocery Distribution.
Williams, C (1995) Healthy eating: clarifying advice about fruit and vegetables. Br Med J
Young, LR & Nestle, M (1998) Variation in perceptions of a ‘medium’ food portion: implications for dietary guidance. J Am Diet Assoc
Hogbin, M & Hess, M (1999) Public confusion over food portions and servings. J Am Diet Assoc
Brogden, N & Almiron-Roig, E (2010) Food liking, familiarity and expected satiation selectively influence portion size estimation of snacks and caloric beverages in men. Appetite
Young, LR & Nestle, M (1995) Portion sizes in dietary assessment – issues and policy implications. Nutr Rev
Shah, M, Adams-Huet, B, Elston, E
et al. (2010) Food serving size knowledge in African American Women and the relationship with body mass index. J Nutr Educ Behav
Rangan, AM, Schindeler, S, Hector, DJ
et al. (2009) Assessment of typical food portion sizes consumed among Australian adults. Nutr Diet
Flynn, MAT, O'Brien, CM, Ross, V
et al. (2012) Revision of food-based dietary guidelines for Ireland, phase 2: recommendations for healthy eating and affordability. Public Health Nutr
Smith, A, Kellett, E & Schmerlaib, Y (2003) The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Background Information for Nutrition Educators. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia.
Gans, KM, Risica, PM, Kirtania, U
et al. (2009) Dietary behaviors and portion sizes of black women who enrolled in SisterTalk and variation by demographic characteristics. J Nutr Educ Behav
Sharma, S, Cade, J, Landman, J
et al. (2002) Assessing the diet of the British African-Caribbean population: frequency of consumption of foods and food portion sizes. Int J Food Sci Nutr
Food Standards Agency (2007) Front of Pack Traffic Light Signpost Labelling – Technical Guidance Issue 2.
London: Food Standards Agency.
British Market Research Bureau Qualitative (2010) Citizens' Forums on Food: Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labelling. London: Food Standard's Agency.
Ashfield-Watt, P (2006) Fruits and vegetables, 5 + a day: are we getting the message across?
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
Ayala, G (2006) An experimental evaluation of a group-versus computer-based intervention to improve food portion size estimation skills. Health Educ Res
Bolland, JE, Yuhas, JA & Bolland, TW (1988) Estimation of food portion sizes: effectiveness of training. J Am Diet Assoc
Yuhas, JA, Bolland, JE & Bolland, TW (1989) The impact of training, food type, gender and container size on the estimation of food portion sizes. J Am Diet Assoc
Weber, JL, Tinsley, AM, Houtkooper, LB
et al. (1997) Multimethod training increases portion-size estimation accuracy. J Am Diet Assoc
Brown, L & Oler, C (2000) A food display assignment and handling food models improves accuracy of college students’ estimates of food portions. J Am Diet Assoc
Venter, CS, MacIntyre, UE & Vorster, HH (2000) The development and testing of a food portion photograph book for use in an African population. J Hum Nutr Diet
Byrd-Bredbenner, C & Schwartz, J (2004) The effect of practical portion size measurement aids on the accuracy of portion size estimates made by young adults. J Hum Nutr Diet
Martin, CK, Anton, SD, York-Crowe, E
et al. (2007) Empirical evaluation of the ability to learn a calorie counting system and estimate portion size and food intake. Br J Nutr
Colapinto, CK & Malaviarachchi, D (2009) Paint your plate: effectiveness of a point-of-purchase display. Can J Diet Pract Res
Ollberding, NJ, Wolf, RL & Contento, I (2010) Food label use and its relation to dietary intake among US adults. J Am Diet Assoc
Ashfield-Watt, PAL, Welch, AA, Day, NE
et al. (2004) Is ‘five-a-day’’ an effective way of increasing fruit and vegetable intakes?
Public Health Nutr
Vermeer, WM, Steenhuis, IHM & Seidell, JC (2009) From the point-of-purchase perspective: a qualitative study of the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size. Health Policy
Kothe, EJ & Mullan, BA (2011) Perceptions of fruit and vegetable dietary guidelines among Australian young adults. Nutr Diet
Vermeer, WM, Steenhuis, IHM, Leeuwis, FH
et al. (2011) View the label before you view the movie: a field experiment into the impact of portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas. BMC Public Health
Tavelli, S, Beerman, K, Shultz, J
et al. (1998) Sources of error and nutritional adequacy of the Food Guide Pyramid. J Am Coll Health
Riley, WT, Beasley, J, Sowell, A
et al. (2007) Effects of a web-based food portion training program on food portion estimation. J Nutr Educ Behav
Nayga, R & Capps, O (1999) US consumers’ perceptions of the importance of following the US dietary guidelines. Food Policy
Hannum, S, Carson, L, Evans, E
et al. (2004) Use of portion-controlled entrees enhances weight loss in women. Obes Res
Hannum, S, Carson, L, Evans, E
et al. (2006) Use of packaged entrees as part of a weight-loss diet in overweight men: an 8-week randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Obes Metab
Pedersen, SD, Kang, J & Kline, GA (2007) Portion control plate for weight loss in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus – a controlled clinical trial. Arch Intern Med
Guthrie, J & Smallwood, D (2003) Evaluating the effects of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on consumer behavior and health: methodological challenges. J Am Diet Assoc
Trubswasser, U & Branca, F (2009) Nutrition policy is taking shape in Europe. Public Health Nutr
Wood, F, Robling, M, Prout, H
et al. (2010) A question of balance: a qualitative study of mothers’ interpretations of dietary recommendations. Ann Fam Med
Anderson, AS, Freeman, J, Stead, M
et al. (2005) Consumer views on portion size guidance to assist adult dietary choices. J Hum Nutr Diet
Hunter, D, Sampson, L, Stampfer, M
et al. (1988) Variability in portion sizes of commonly consumed foods among a population of women in the United-States. Am J Epidemiol
The European Food Information Council (2011) How Do Consumers Respond to Portion Information on Food and Drink Labels?
Mian, SI & Brauer, PM (2009) Dietary education tools for south Asians with diabetes. Can J Diet Pract Res
Carlton, D, Kicklighter, J, Jonnalagadda, S
et al. (2000) Design, development, and formative evaluation of “Put Nutrition Into Practice,” a multimedia nutrition education program for adults. J Am Diet Assoc
Cousineau, TM, Franko, DL, Ciccazzo, M
et al. (2006) Web-based nutrition education for college students: is it feasible?
Eval Program Plann
Vermeer, WM, Alting, E, Steenhuis, IHM
et al. (2010) Value for money or making the healthy choice: the impact of proportional pricing on consumers’ portion size choices. Eur J Public Health
Watts, ML, Hager, MH, Toner, CD
et al. (2011) The art of translating nutritional science into dietary guidance: history and evolution of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Nutr Rev
Goldberg, JP & Sliwa, SA (2011) Session 4. Getting balanced nutrition messages across communicating actionable nutrition messages: challenges and opportunities. Proc Nutr Soc
US Department of Agriculture (1992) Food Guide Pyramid. Washington, DC: USDA Centre for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.
USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (2000) Serving sizes in the Food Guide Pyramid and on the Nutrition Facts Label: What's Different and Why?
Washington, DC: USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.
Walker, KZ, Woods, JL, Rickard, CA
et al. (2008) Product variety in Australian snacks and drinks: how can the consumer make a healthy choice?
Public Health Nutr
Cleanthous, X, Mackintosh, A & Anderson, S (2011) Comparison of reported nutrients and serve size between private label products and branded products in Australian supermarkets. Nutr Diet
Food Safety Authority of Ireland (2011) Scientific Recommendations for Healthy Eating in Ireland. Dublin: Food Safety Authority of Ireland.
Ervin, R & Smiciklas-Wright, H (2001) Accuracy in estimating and recalling portion sizes of foods among elderly adults. Nutr Res
Ovaskainen, M, Paturi, M, Reinivuo, H
et al. (2008) Accuracy in the estimation of food servings against the portions in food photographs. Eur J Clin Nutr
Wrieden, WL & Momen, NC (2009) Workshop 3: novel approaches for estimating portion sizes. Eur J Clin Nutr
Cypel, YS, Guenther, PM & Petot, GJ (1997) Validity of portion-size measurement aids: a review. J Am Diet Assoc
Wansink, B & Park, S (2001) At the movies: how external cues and perceived taste impact consumption volume. Food Qual Prefer
Geier, AB, Rozin, P & Doros, G (2006) Unit bias – a new heuristic that helps explain the effect of portion size on food intake. Psychol Sci
Vartanian, LR, Herman, CP & Wansink, B (2008) Are we aware of the external factors that influence our food intake?
Wansink, B (2004) Environmental factors that increase the food intake and consumption volume of unknowing consumers. Annu Rev Nutr
Koh, J & Pliner, P (2009) The effects of degree of acquaintance, plate size, and sharing on food intake. Appetite
Tetley, A, Brunstrom, J & Griffiths, P (2009) Individual differences in food-cue reactivity. The role of BMI and everyday portion-size selections. Appetite
Ferriday, D & Brunstrom, JM (2008) How does food-cue exposure lead to larger meal sizes?
Br J Nutr
Huizinga, MM, Carlisle, AJ, Cavanaugh, KL
et al. (2009) Literacy, numeracy, and portion-size estimation skills. Am J Prev Med
Rothman, RL, Housam, R, Weiss, H
et al. (2006) Patient understanding of food labels – the role of literacy and numeracy. Am J Prev Med
Rolls, BJ, Roe, LS, Halverson, KH
et al. (2007) Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals. Appetite
Shah, M, Schroeder, R, Winn, W
et al. (2011) A pilot study to investigate the effect of plate size on meal energy intake in normal weight and overweight/obese women. J Hum Nutr Diet
Brunstrom, JM, Shakeshaft, NG & Alexander, E (2010) Familiarity changes expectations about fullness. Appetite
Wansink, B, Painter, J & North, J (2005) Bottomless bowls: why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obes Res
Fay, SH, Ferriday, D, Hinton, EC
et al. (2011) What determines real-world meal size? Evidence for pre-meal planning. Appetite
Wansink, B & van Ittersum, K (2007) Portion size me: downsizing our consumption norms. J Am Diet Assoc
Brunstrom, JM & Shakeshaft, NSG (2009) Measuring affective (liking) and non-affective (expected satiety) determinants of portion size and food reward. Appetite
Brunstrom, JM, Shakeshaft, NG & Scott-Samuel, NE (2008) Measuring ‘expected satiety’ in a range of common foods using a method of constant stimuli. Appetite
Brunstrom, JM & Rogers, PJ (2009) How many calories are on our plate? Expected fullness, not liking, determines meal-size selection. Obesity
Brunstrom, JM, Collingwood, J & Rogers, PJ (2010) Perceived volume, expected satiation, and the energy content of self-selected meals. Appetite
Brunstrom, JM (2011) The control of meal size in human subjects: a role for expected satiety, expected satiation and premeal planning. Proc Nutr Soc
Scheibehenne, B, Todd, PM & Wansink, B (2010) Dining in the dark. The importance of visual cues for food consumption and satiety. Appetite
Shimizu, M, Payne, CR & Wansink, B (2010) When snacks become meals: how hunger and environmental cues bias food intake. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
Brunstrom, JM, Rogers, PJ, Pothos, EM
et al. (2008) Estimating everyday portion size using a ‘method of constant stimuli’: In a student sample, portion size is predicted by gender, dietary behaviour, and hunger, but not BMI. Appetite
Wansink, B & Chandon, P (2006) Can “low-fat” nutrition labels lead to obesity?
J Market Res