Skip to main content Accessibility help

Nutritional management of gut health in pigs around weaning

  • Jean-Paul Lallès (a1), Paolo Bosi (a2), Hauke Smidt (a3) and Chris R. Stokes (a4)


Early weaning of piglets is often accompanied by a severe growth check and diarrhoea. It is well established that this process is multi-factorial and that post-weaning anorexia and undernutrition are major aetiological factors. Gastrointestinal disturbances include alterations in small intestine architecture and enzyme activities. Recent data indicate transiently-increased mucosal permeability, disturbed absorptive–secretory electrolyte balance and altered local inflammatory cytokine patterns after weaning. These responses appear to operate according to two distinct temporal patterns, an acute response followed by a long-lasting adaptation response. Pigs coexist with a diverse and dense commensal microbiota in their gastrointestinal tract. Most of these microbes are beneficial, providing necessary nutrients or protection against harmful pathogens for the host. The microbial colonisation of the porcine intestine begins at birth and follows a rapid succession during the neonatal and weaning period. Following the withdrawal of sow's milk the young piglets are highly susceptible to enteric diseases partly as a result of the altered balance between developing beneficial microbiota and the establishment of intestinal bacterial pathogens. The intestinal immune system of the newborn piglet is poorly developed at birth and undergoes a rapid period of expansion and specialisation that is not achieved before early (commercial) weaning. Here, new insights on the interactions between feed components, the commensal microbiota and the physiology and immunology of the host gastrointestinal tract are highlighted, and some novel dietary strategies are outlined that are focused on improving gut health. Prebiotics and probiotics are clear nutritional options, while convincing evidence is still lacking for other bioactive substances of vegetable origin.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Nutritional management of gut health in pigs around weaning
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Nutritional management of gut health in pigs around weaning
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Nutritional management of gut health in pigs around weaning
      Available formats


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr Jean-Paul Lallès, fax +33 2 2348 5080, email


Hide All
Asfar, S, Abdeen, S, Dashti, H, Khourshedd, M, Al-Sayer, H, Mathew, T & Al-Bader, A (2003) Effect of green tea in the prevention and reversal of fasting-induced intestinal mucosal damage. Nutrition 19, 536540.
Bailey, M, Haverson, K, Inman, C, Harris, C, Jones, P, Corfield, G, Miller, B & Stokes, C (2005) The development of the mucosal immune system pre- and post-weaning: balancing regulatory and effector function. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 64, 451457.
Bailey, M, Haverson, K, Miller, B, Jones, P, Sola, I, Enjuanes, L & Stokes, CR (2004) Effects of infection with transmissible gastroenteritis virus on concomitant immune responses to dietary and injected antigens. Clinical Diagnostic and Laboratory Immunology 11, 337343.
Bailey, M, Plunkett, FJ, Rothkotter, H-J, Vega-Lopez, MA, Haverson, K & Stokes, CR (2001) Regulation of mucosal immune responses in effector sites. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60, 427435.
Bauer, E, Williams, BA, Smidt, H, Mosenthin, R & Verstegen, MWA (2006) Influence of dietary components on development of the microbiota in single-stomached species. Nutrition Research Reviews 19, 117.
Baum, B, Liebler-Tenorio, EM, Enss, ML, Pohlenz, JF & Breves, G (2002) Saccharomyces L and Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi influence the morphology and the mucins of the intestine of pigs. Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 40, 277284.
Bontempo, V, Di Giancamillo, A, Savoini, G, Dell'Orto, V & Domeneghini, C (2006) Live yeast dietary supplementation acts upon intestinal morpho-functional aspects and growth in weanling piglets. Animal Feed Science and Technology 129, 224236.
Bosi, P, Casini, L, Finamore, A, Cremokolini, C, Merialdi, G, Trevisi, P, Nobili, F & Mengheri, E (2004) Spray-dried plasma improves growth performance and reduces inflammatory status of weaned pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88. Journal of Animal Science 82, 17641772.
Boudry, G, Péron, V, Le Huérou-Luron, I, Lallès, JP & Sève, B (2004) Weaning induces both transient and long-lasting modifications of absorptive, secretory, and barrier properties of piglet intestine. Journal of Nutrition 134, 22562262.
Brooks, PH, Moran, CA, Beal, JD, Demeckova, V & Campbell, A (2001) Liquid feeding for the young piglet. In The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management, pp. 153178 [Varley, MA and Wiseman, J editors]. Wallingford, Oxon: CAB International.
Bruininx, EM, Binnendijk, GP, van der Peet-Schwering, CM, Schrama, JW, den Hartog, LA, Everts, H & Beynen, AC (2002) Effect of creep feed consumption on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science 80, 14131418.
Bruininx, EM, van der Peet-Schwering, CM, Schrama, JW, Vereijken, PF, Vesseur, PC, Everts, H, den Hartog, LA & Beynen, AC (2001) Individually measured feed intake characteristics and growth performance of group-housed weanling pigs: effects of sex, initial body weight, and body weight distribution within groups. Journal of Animal Science 79, 301308.
Butler, JE, Sun, J, Weber, P, Navarro, P & Francis, D (2000) Antibody repertoire development in fetal and newborn piglets, III. Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract selectively diversifies the preimmune repertoire in mucosal lymphoid tissues. Immunology 100, 119130.
Carstensen, L, Ersboll, AK, Jensen, KH & Nielsen, JP (2005) Escherichia coli post-weaning diarrhoea occurrence in piglets with monitored exposure to creep feed. Veterinary Microbiology 110, 113123.
Davis, ME, Maxwell, CV, Erf, GF, Brown, DC & Wistuba, TJ (2004) Dietary supplementation with phosphorylated mannans improves growth response and modulates immune function of weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science 82, 18821891.
Decuypere, JA & Dierick, NA (2003) The combined use of triacylglycerols containing medium-chain fatty acids and exogenous lipolytic enzymes as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in piglets: concept, possibilities and limitations. An overview. Nutrition Research Reviews 16, 193209.
Domeneghini, C, Di Giancamillo, A, Bosi, G & Arrighi, S (2006) Can nutraceuticals affect the structure of intestinal mucosa? Qualitative and quantitative microanatomy in L-glutamine diet-supplemented weaning piglets. Veterinary Research Communications 30, 331342.
Domeneghini, C, Di Giancamillo, A, Savoini, G, Paratte, R, Bontempo, V & Dell'Orto, V (2004) Structural patterns of swine ileal mucosa following L-glutamine and nucleotide administration during the weaning period. An histochemical and histometrical study. Histology and Histopathology 19, 4958.
Dréau, D & Lallès, JP (1999) Contribution to the study of gut hypersensitivity reactions to soybean proteins in preruminant calves and early-weaned piglets. Livestock Production Science 60, 209218.
English, PR (1981) Establishing the early weaned pig. Proceedings of the Pig Veterinary Society 7, 2937.
Ewtushick, AL, Bertolo, RFP & Ball, RO (2000) Intestinal development of early-weaned piglets receiving diets supplemented with selected amino acids or polyamines. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 80, 653662.
Goransson, L (1997) Alternatives to antibiotics – The influence of new feeding strategies for pigs on biology and performance. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition, pp. 4556 [Garnsworthy, PC and Wiseman, J editors]. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.
Han, ZK, Wang, GJ, Yao, W & Zhu, WY (2006) Isoflavonic phytoestrogens – new prebiotics for farm animals: a review on research in China. Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology 7, 5360.
Harte, RD, Shoveller, AK, Bertolo, RFP & Ball, RO (2003) Cystine supplementation adversely affects small intestinal morphology. In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, pp. 213215 [Ball, RA editor]. Banff, Alberta: University of Alberta Publisher.
Hill, JE, Hemmingsen, SM, Goldade, BG, Dumonceaux, TJ, Klassen, J, Zijlstra, RT, Goh, SH & Van Kessel, AG (2005) Comparison of ileum microflora of pigs fed corn-, wheat-, or barley-based diets by chaperonin-60 sequencing and quantitative PCR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71, 867875.
Hopwood, DE & Hampson, DJ (2003) Interactions between the intestinal microflora, diet and diarrhoea, and their influences on piglet health in the immediate post-weaning period. In Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences, pp. 199217 [Pluske, JR, Le Dividich, J and Verstegen, MWA editors]. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Hopwood, DE, Pethick, DW, Pluske, JR & Hampson, DJ (2004) Addition of pearl barley to a rice-based diet for newly weaned piglets increases the viscosity of the intestinal contents, reduces starch digestibility and exacerbates post-weaning colibacillosis. British Journal of Nutrition 92, 419427.
Huang, C, Qiao, S, Lifa, D, Piao, X & Ren, J (2004) Effects of lactobacilli on the performance, diarrhea incidence, VFA concentration and gastrointestinal microbial flora of weaning pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 17, 401409.
Inoue, R, Tsukahara, T, Nakanishi, N & Ushida, K (2005) Development of the intestinal microbiota in the piglet. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 51, 257265.
Jiang, R, Chang, X, Stoll, B, Fan, MZ, Arthington, J, Weaver, E, Campbell, & Burrin, DG (2000) Dietary plasma protein reduces small intestinal growth and lamina propria cell density in early weaned pigs. Journal of Nutrition 130, 2126.
Konstantinov, SR (2005) From composition to functionality of the porcine intestinal microbiota. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Konstantinov, SR, Awati, A, Smidt, H, Williams, BA, Akkermans, ADL & de Vos, WM (2004a) Specific response of a novel and abundant Lactobacillus amylovorus-like phylotype to dietary prebiotics in the ileum and colon of weaning piglets. Applied Environmental Microbiology 70, 38213830.
Konstantinov, SR, Awati, AA, Williams, BA, Miller, BG, Jones, P, Stokes, CR, Akkermans, ADL, Smidt, H & de Vos, WM (2006ab) Post-natal development of the porcine microbiota composition and activities. Environmental Microbiology 8, 11911199.
Konstantinov, SR, Favier, CF, Zhu, WY, Williams, BA, Klüss, J, Souffrant, WB, de Vos, WM, Akkermans, ADL & Smidt, H (2004b) Microbial diversity studies of the porcine gastrointestinal ecosystem during weaning transition. Animal Research 53, 317324.
Konstantinov, SR, Poznanski, E, Fuentes, S, Akkermans, ADL, Smidt, H & de Vos, WM (2006ba) Lactobacillus sobrius sp. nov., a novel isolate abundant in the intestine of weaning piglets. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 56, 2932.
Konstantinov, SR, Zhu, WY, Williams, BA, Tamminga, S, de Vos, WM & Akkermans, ADL (2003) Effect of fermentable carbohydrates on faecal bacterial communities as revealed by DGGE analysis of 16S rDNA. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 43, 225235.
Koopmans, SJ, Guzik, AC, van der Meulen, J, Dekker, R, Kogut, J, Kerr, BJ & Southern, LL (2006) Effects of supplemental L-tryptophan on serotonin, cortisol, intestinal integrity, and behavior in weanling piglets. Journal of Animal Science 84, 963971.
Lallès, JP, Boudry, G, Favier, C, Le Floc'h, N, Luron, I, Montagne, L, Oswald, IP, Pié, S, Piel, C & Sève, B (2004) Gut function and dysfunction in young pigs: physiology. Animal Research 53, 301316.
Lallès, JP, Boudry, G, Favier, C & Sève, B (2006) High-viscosity carboxymethylcellulose reduces carbachol-stimulated intestinal chloride secretion in weaned piglets fed a diet based on skimmed milk powder and maltodextrin. British Journal of Nutrition 95, 488495.
Lange, S & Lonnroth, I (2001) The anti-secretory factor: synthesis, anatomical and cellular distribution, and biological action in experimental and clinical studies. International Review of Cytology 210, 3975.
Le Dividich, J & Sève, B (2000) Effects of underfeeding during the weaning period on growth, metabolism, and hormonal adjustments in the piglet. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 19, 6374.
Lindecrona, RH, Jensen, TK, Jensen, BB, Leser, TD, Jiufeng, W & Moller, K (2003) The influence of diet on the development of swine dysentery upon experimental infection. Animal Science 76, 8187.
Loh, G, Eberhard, M, Brunner, RM, Hennig, U, Kuhla, S, Kleessen, B & Metges, CC (2006) Inulin alters the intestinal microbiota and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in growing pigs regardless of their basal diet. Journal of Nutrition 136, 11981202.
McCracken, BA, Spurlock, ME, Roos, MA, Zuckermann, FA & Gaskins, HR (1999) Weaning anorexia may contribute to local inflammation in the piglet small intestine. Journal of Nutrition 129, 613619.
McDonald, DE, Pethick, DW, Mullan, BP & Hampson, DJ (2001) Increasing viscosity of the intestinal contents alters small intestinal structure and intestinal growth, and stimulates proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in newly-weaned pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 86, 487498.
MacFarlane, GT, Gibson, GR, Beatty, E & Cummings, JH (1992) Estimation of short-chain fatty acid production from protein by human intestinal bacteria based on branched-chain fatty acid measurements. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 101, 819822.
Manzanilla, EG, Perez, JF, Martin, M, Kamel, C, Baucells, F & Gasa, J (2004) Effect of plant extracts and formic acid on the intestinal equilibrium of early-weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science 82, 32103218.
Metzler, B, Bauer, E & Mosenthin, R (2005). Microflora management in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 18, 13531362.
Miller, BG, Whittemore, CT, Stokes, CR & Telemo, E (1994) The effect of delayed weaning on the development of oral tolerance to soya-bean protein in pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 71, 615625.
Montagne, L, Cavaney, FS, Hampson, DJ, Lallès, JP & Pluske, JR (2004) Effect of diet composition on postweaning colibacillosis in piglets. Journal of Animal Science 82, 23642374.
Mroz, Z (2003) Organic acids of various origin and physico-chemical forms as potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters for pigs. In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, vol. 1, pp. 267293 [Ball, RA editor]. Banff, Alberta: University of Alberta Publisher.
Namkung, H, Li, M, Gong, J, Yu, H, Cottrill, M & de Lange, CFM (2004) Impact of feeding blends of organic acids and herbal extracts on growth performance, gut microbiota and digestive function in newly weaned pigs. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 84, 697704.
Owusu-Asiedu, A, Baidoo, SK, Nyachoti, CM & Marquardt, RR (2002) Response of early-weaned pigs to spray-dried porcine or animal plasma-based diets supplemented with egg-yolk antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Journal of Animal Science 80, 28952903.
Owusu-Asiedu, A, Nyachoti, CM, Baidoo, SK, Marquardt, RR & Yang, X (2003a) Response of early-weaned pigs to an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) challenge when fed diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma or pea protein isolate plus egg yolk antibody. Journal of Animal Science 81, 17811789.
Owusu-Asiedu, A, Nyachoti, CM & Marquardt, RR (2003b) Response of early-weaned pigs to an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) challenge when fed diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma or pea protein isolate plus egg yolk antibody, zinc oxide, fumaric acid, or antibiotic. Journal of Animal Science 81, 17901798.
Pié, S, Lallès, JP, Blazy, F, Laffitte, J, Sève, B & Oswald, IP (2004) Weaning is associated with an upregulation of expression of inflammatory cytokines in the intestine of piglets. Journal of Nutrition 134, 641647.
Piel, C, Montagne, L, Sève, B & Lallès, JP (2005) Increasing digesta viscosity using carboxymethylcellulose in weaned piglets stimulates ileal goblet cell numbers and maturation. Journal of Nutrition 135, 8691.
Pierce, JL, Cromwell, GL, Lindemann, MD, Russell, LE & Weaver, EM (2005) Effects of spray-dried animal plasma and immunoglobulins on performance of early weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science 83, 28762885.
Pierce, KM, Callan, JJ, McCarthy, P & O'Doherty, JV (2007) The interaction between lactose level and crude protein concentration on piglet post-weaning performance, nitrogen metabolism, selected faecal microbial populations and faecal volatile fatty acid concentrations. Animal Feed Science and Technology 132, 267282.
Pierce, KM, Sweeney, T, Brophy, PO, Callan, JJ, Fitzpatrick, E, McCarthy, P & O'Doherty, JV (2006) The effect of lactose and inulin on intestinal morphology, selected microbial populations and volatile fatty acid concentrations in the gastro-intestinal tract of the weaned pig. Animal Science 82, 311318.
Pluske, JR, Hampson, DJ & Williams, IH (1997) Factors influencing the structure and function of the small intestine in the weaned pig: a review. Livestock Production Science 51, 215236.
Roselli, M, Finamore, A, Britti, MS, Bosi, P, Oswald, IP & Mengheri, E (2005) Alternatives to in-feed antibiotics in pigs: Evaluation of probiotics, zinc or organic acids as protective agents for the intestinal mucosa. A comparison of in vitro and in vivo results. Animal Research 54, 203218.
Russell, JB, Sniffen, CJ & Van SOest, PJ (1983) Effect of carbohydrate limitation on degradation and utilization of casein by mixed rumen bacteria. Journal of Dairy Science 66, 763775.
Scharek, L, Guth, J, Reiter, K, Weyrauch, KD, Taras, D, Schwerk, P, Schierack, P, Schmidt, MF, Wieler, LH & Tedin, K (2005) Influence of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain on development of the immune system of sows and piglets. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 105, 151161.
Schroeder, B, Duncker, S, Barth, S, Bauerfeind, R, Gruber, AD, Deppenmeier, S & Breves, G (2006) Preventive effects of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 on acute secretory diarrhea in a pig model of intestinal infection. Digestive Disease and Science 51, 724731.
Spreeuwenberg, MAM, Verdonk, JMAJ, Gaskins, HR & Verstegen, MWA (2001) Small intestine epithelial barrier function is compromised in pigs with low feed intake at weaning. Journal of Nutrition 131, 15201527.
Taras, D, Vahjen, W, Macha, M & Simon, O (2006) Performance, diarrhea incidence, and occurrence of Escherichia coli virulence genes during long-term administration of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain to sows and piglets. Journal of Animal Science 84, 608617.
Thacker, PA (1999) Nutritional requirements of early weaned pigs: a review. Pig News Information 20, 13N24N.
Torrallardona, D, Conde, MR, Badiola, I, Polo, J & Brufau, J (2003) Effect of fishmeal replacement with spray-dried animal plasma and colistin on intestinal structure, intestinal microbiology, and performance of weanling pigs challenged with Escherichia coli K99. Journal of Animal Science 81, 12201226.
Touchette, KJ, Carroll, JA, Allee, GL, Matteri, RL, Dyer, CJ, Beausang, LA & Zannelli, ME (2002) Effect of spray-dried plasma and lipopolysaccharide exposure on weaned pigs: I. Effects on the immune axis of weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science 80, 494501.
Trevisi, P (2005) Effetto di differenti scelte dietetiche ad azione pre e probiotica sulle prestazioni di crescita, lo stato di salute, la risposta immunitaria umorale e lo sviluppo funzionale dell'intestino tenue del suino in svezzamento (Effect of different dietary solutions with pre- and probiotic actions, on growth performance, health, humoral immune response and functional development of small intestine of weaning pig). PhD Thesis, University of Bologna, Italy.
Van Beers-Schreurs, HM, Nabuurs, MJ, Vellenga, L, Kalsbeek-van der Valk, HJ, Wensing, T & Breukink, HJ (1998) Weaning and the weanling diet influence the villous height and crypt depth in the small intestine of pigs and alter the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in the large intestine and blood. Journal of Nutrition 128, 947953.
Van der Waaij, D, Berghuis-de Vries, JM & Lekkerkerk-van der Wees, JEC (1971) Colonization resistance of the digestive tract in conventional and antibiotic-treated mice. Journal of Hygiene (London) 69, 405411.
Van Dijk, AJ, Enthoven, PMM, Van den Hoven, SGC, Van Laarhoven, MMMH, Niewold, TA, Nabuurs, MJA & Beynen, AC (2002) The effect of dietary spray-dried porcine plasma on clinical response in weaned piglets challenged with a pathogenic Escherichia coli. Veterinary Microbiology, 84, 207218.
Van Dijk, AJ, Everts, H, Nabuurs, NJA, Margry, RJCF & Beynen, AC (2001) Growth performance of weaned pigs fed spray-dried animal plasma: a review. Livestock Production Science 68, 263274.
Van Nevel, CJ, Decuypere, JA, Dierick, N & Molly, K (2003) The influence of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake mushroom) preparations on bacteriological and morphological aspects of the small intestine in piglets. Archives für Tierernahrung 57, 399412.
Van Nevel, CJ, Decuypere, JA, Dierick, NA & Molly, K (2005) Incorporation of galactomannans in the diet of newly weaned piglets: effect on bacteriological and some morphological characteristics of the small intestine. Archives of Animal Nutrition 59, 123138.
Vega-Lopez, MA, Telemo, E, Bailey, M, Stevens, K & Stokes, CR (1993) Immune cell distribution in the small-intestine of the pig – immunohistological evidence for an organized compartmentalization in the lamina propria. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 37, 4960.
Vente-Spreeuwenberg, MAM, Verdonk, JMAJ, Bakker, GCM, Beynen, AC & Verstegen, MWA (2004a) Effect of dietary protein source on feed intake and small intestinal morphology in newly weaned piglets. Livestock Production Science 86, 169177.
Vente-Spreeuwenberg, MAM, Verdonk, JMAJ, Koeninkx, JFJG, Beynen, AC & Verstegen, MWA (2004b) Dietary protein hydrolysates vs. intact proteins do not enhance mucosal integrity and growth performance in weaned piglets. Livestock Production Science 85, 151164.
Vente-Spreeuwenberg, MAM, Verdonk, JMAJ, Verstegen, MWA & Beynen, AC (2003) Villus height and gut development in weaned piglets receiving diets containing either glucose, lactose or starch. British Journal of Nutrition 90, 907913.
Visek, WJ (1978) Diet and cell growth modulation by ammonia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31, S216S220.
Williams, BA, Verstegen, MWA & Tamminga, S (2001) Fermentation in the monogastric large intestine: its relation to animal health. Nutrition Research Reviews 14, 207227.
Wilson, AD, Haverson, K, Southgate, K, Bland, PW, Stokes, CR & Bailey, M (1996) Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens on normal porcine intestinal endothelium. Immunology 88, 98103.
Wu, G, Meier, SA & Knabe, DA (1996) Dietary glutamine supplementation prevents jejunal atrophy in weaned pigs. Journal of Nutrition 126, 25782584.
Yao, W, Zhu, WY, Han, ZK, Williams, B, Tamminga, S & Akkermans, ADL (2004) Daidzein increased the density but not composition of Lactobacillus community in piglet digesta during in vitro fermentation as revealed by DGGE and dilution PCR. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 44, Suppl., S17.
Yokoyama, MT, Tabori, C, Miller, ER & Hogberg, MG (1982) The effects of antibiotics in the weanling pig diet on growth and the excretion of volatile phenolic and aromatic bacterial metabolites. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 35, 14171424.
Zoetendal, EG, Collier, CT, Koike, S, Mackie, RI & Gaskins, HR (2004) Molecular ecological analysis of the gastrointestinal microbiota: A review. Journal of Nutrition 134, 465472.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Nutritional management of gut health in pigs around weaning

  • Jean-Paul Lallès (a1), Paolo Bosi (a2), Hauke Smidt (a3) and Chris R. Stokes (a4)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.