Aarsland, A, Chinkes, D & Wolfe, RR (1997) Hepatic and whole-body fat synthesis in humans during carbohydrate overfeeding. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 1774–1782.
Abraha, A, Humphreys, SM, Clark, ML, Matthews, DR & Frayn, KN (1998) Acute effect of fructose on postprandial lipaemia in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. British Journal of Nutrition 80, 169–175.
Albrink, MJ & Ullrich, IH (1986) Interaction of dietary sucrose and fiber on serum lipids in healthy young men fed high carbohydrate diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 419–428.
Anderson, JW (1995) Dietary fibre, complex carbohydrate and coronary artery disease. Canadian Journal of Cardiology 11, Suppl. G, 55G–62G.
Brunzell, JD, Hazzard, WR, Porte, D Jr & Bierman, EL (1973) Evidence for a common, saturable, triglyceride removal mechanism for chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins in man. Journal of Clinical Investigation 52, 1578–1585.
Brussaard, JH, Katan, MB, Groot, PH, Havekes, LM & Hautvast, JG (1982) Serum lipoproteins of healthy persons fed a low-fat diet or a polyunsaturated fat diet for three months. A comparison of two cholesterol-lowering diets. Atherosclerosis 42, 205–219.
Campos, H, Dreon, DM & Krauss, RM (1995) Associations of hepatic and lipoprotein lipase activities with changes in dietary composition and low density lipoprotein subclasses. Journal of Lipid Research 36, 462–472.
Cohen, JC & Schall, R (1988) Reassessing the effects of simple carbohydrates on the serum triglyceride responses to fat meals. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 1031–1034.
Daly, M (2003) Sugars, insulin sensitivity, and the postprandial state. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78, 865S–872S.
Daly, ME, Vale, C, Walker, M, Littlefield, A, Alberti, KGMM & Mathers, J (2000) Acute fuel selection in response to high-sucrose and high-starch meals in healthy men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 1516–1524.
Diraison, F, Dusserre, E, Vidal, H, Sothier, M & Beylot, M (2002) Increased hepatic lipogenesis but decreased expression of lipogenic gene in adipose tissue in human obesity. American Journal of Physiology 282, E46–E51.
Frayn, KN & Kingman, SM (1995) Dietary sugars and lipid metabolism in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 250S–261S.
Frayn, KN & Langin, D (2004) Triacylglycerol metabolism in adipose tissue. In Lipobiology, pp. 337–356 [van der Vusse, G editor]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier B.V.
Frayn, KN, Summers, LK & Fielding, BA (1997) Regulation of the plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration in the postprandial state. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 713–721.
Fried, SK & Rao, SP (2003) Sugars, hypertriglyceridemia, and cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78, 873S–880S.
Ginsberg, HN, Le, NA, Melish, J, Steinberg, D & Brown, WV (1981) Effect of a high carbohydrate diet on apoprotein-B catabolism in man. Metabolism 30, 347–353.
Griffiths, AJ, Humphreys, SM, Clark, ML, Fielding, BA & Frayn, KN (1994) Immediate metabolic availability of dietary fat in combination with carbohydrate. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 53–59.
Hallfrisch, J, Reiser, S & Prather, ES (1983) Blood lipid distribution of hyperinsulinemic men consuming three levels of fructose. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 37, 740–748.
Harbis, A, Defoort, C, Narbonne, H, Juhel, C, Senft, M, Latge, C, Delenne, B, Portugal, H, Atlan-Gepner, C, Vialettes, B & Lairon, D (2001) Acute hyperinsulinism modulates plasma apolipoprotein B-48 triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in healthy subjects during the postprandial period. Diabetes 50, 462–469.
Higgins, JA (2004) Resistant starch: metabolic effects and potential health benefits. Journal of AOAC International 87, 761–768.
Hodges, RE & Krehl, WA (1965) The role of carbohydrates in lipid metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17, 334–346.
Hodis, HN & Mack, WJ (1998) Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and progression of atherosclerosis. European Heart Journal 19, Suppl. A, A40–A44.
Hodson, L, Skeaff, CM & Chisholm, WA (2001) The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 908–915.
Howard, BV, Abbott, WG, Egusa, G & Taskinen, MR (1987) Coordination of very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride and apolipoprotein B metabolism in humans: effects of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. American Heart Journal 113, 522–526.
Hudgins, LC, Hellerstein, M, Seidman, C, Neese, R, Diakun, J & Hirsch, J (1996) Human fatty acid synthesis is stimulated by a eucaloric low fat, high carbohydrate diet. Journal of Clinical Investigation 97, 2081–2091.
Hudgins, LC, Hellerstein, MK, Seidman, CE, Neese, RA, Tremaroli, JD & Hirsch, J (2000) Relationship between carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia and fatty acid synthesis in lean and obese subjects. Journal of Lipid Research 41, 595–604.
Hudgins, LC, Seidman, CE, Diakun, J & Hirsch, J (1998) Human fatty acid synthesis is reduced after the substitution of dietary starch for sugar. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67, 631–639.
Jeppesen, J, Chen, YD, Zhou, MY, Wang, T & Reaven, GM (1995) Effect of variations in oral fat and carbohydrate load on postprandial lipemia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 1201–1205.
Karpe, F (1997) Effects of diet on postprandial lipaemia: a suggestion for methodological standardization. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases 7, 44–55.
Kissebah, AH, Alfarsi, S, Adams, PW, Seed, M, Folkard, J & Wynn, V (1976) Transport kinetics of plasma free fatty acid, very low density lipoprotein triglycerides and apoprotein in patients with endogenous hypertriglyceridaemia: effects of 2,2-dimethyl, 5(2, 5-xylyoxy) valeric acid therapy. Atherosclerosis 24, 199–218.
Koutsari, C, Karpe, F, Humphreys, SM, Frayn, KN & Hardman, AE (2001) Exercise prevents the accumulation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants seen when changing to a high-carbohydrate diet. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 21, 1520–1525.
Letexier, D, Pinteur, C, Large, V, Frering, V & Beylot, M (2003) Comparison of the expression and activity of the lipogenic pathway in human and rat adipose tissue. Journal of Lipid Research 44, 2127–2134.
Lewis, GF, Uffelman, KD, Szeto, LW & Steiner, G (1993) Effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on VLDL triglyceride and VLDL apoB production in normal weight and obese individuals. Diabetes 42, 833–842.
Lithell, H, Jacobs, I, Vessby, B, Hellsing, K & Karlsson, J (1982) Decrease of lipoprotein lipase activity in skeletal muscle in man during a short-term carbohydrate-rich dietary regime. With special reference to HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein and insulin concentrations. Metabolism 31, 994–998.
Liu, G, Coulston, A, Hollenbeck, C & Reaven, G (1984) The effect of sucrose content in high and low carbohydrate diets on plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid responses in hypertriglyceridemic humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 59, 636–642.
McDevitt, RM, Bott, SJ, Harding, M, Coward, WA, Bluck, LJ & Prentice, AM (2001) De novo lipogenesis during controlled overfeeding with sucrose or glucose in lean and obese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74, 737–746.
McGuinness, OP & Cherrington, AD (2003) Effects of fructose on hepatic glucose metabolism. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 6, 441–448.
Mancini, M, Mattock, M, Rabaya, E, Chait, A & Lewis, B (1973) Studies of the mechanisms of carbohydrate-induced lipaemia in normal man. Atherosclerosis 17, 445–454.
Minehira, K, Vega, N, Vidal, H, Acheson, K & Tappy, L (2004) Effect of carbohydrate overfeeding on whole body macronutrient metabolism and expression of lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue of lean and overweight humans. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 28, 1291–1298.
Mittendorfer, B & Sidossis, LS (2001) Mechanism for the increase in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations after consumption of short-term, high-carbohydrate diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73, 892–899.
Moore, MC, Cherrington, AD, Mann, SL & Davis, SN (2000) Acute fructose administration decreases the glycemic response to an oral glucose tolerance test in normal adults. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85, 4515–4519.
Murphy, SP & Johnson, RK (2003) The scientific basis of recent US guidance on sugars intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78, 827S–833S.
Neese, RA, Benowitz, NL, Hoh, R, Faix, D, LaBua, A, Pun, K & Hellerstein, MK (1994) Metabolic interactions between surplus dietary energy intake and cigarette smoking or its cessation. American Journal of Physiology 267, E1023–E1034.
Nestel, PJ, Reardon, M & Fidge, NH (1979) Sucrose-induced changes in VLDL- and LDL-B apoprotein removal rates. Metabolism 28, 531–535.
Parks, EJ & Hellerstein, MK (2000) Carbohydrate-induced hypertriacylglycerolemia: historical perspective and review of biological mechanisms. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 412–433.
Parks, EJ, Krauss, RM, Christiansen, MP, Neese, RA & Hellerstein, MK (1999) Effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on VLDL-triglyceride assembly, production, and clearance. Journal of Clinical Investigation 104, 1087–1096.
Quarfordt, SH, Frank, A, Shames, DM, Berman, M & Steinberg, D (1970) Very low density lipoprotein triglyceride transport in type IV hyperlipoproteinemia and the effects of carbohydrate-rich diets. Journal of Clinical Investigation 49, 2281–2297.
Reaven, GM (1997) Do high carbohydrate diets prevent the development or attenuate the manifestations (or both) of syndrome X? A viewpoint strongly against. Current Opinion in Lipidology 8, 23–27.
Risérus, U, Tan, GD, Fielding, BA, Neville, MJ, Currie, J, Savage, DB, Chatterjee, VK, Frayn, KN, O'Rahilly, S & Karpe, F (2005) Rosiglitazone increases indexes of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in humans: link to insulin sensitization and the role of dominant-negative mutation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. Diabetes 54, 1379–1384.
Schutz, Y (2004) Concept of fat balance in human obesity revisited with particular reference to de novo lipogenesis. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 28, Suppl. 4, S3–S11.
Schwarz, JM, Linfoot, P, Dare, D & Aghajanian, K (2003) Hepatic de novo lipogenesis in normoinsulinemic and hyperinsulinemic subjects consuming high-fat, low-carbohydrate and low-fat, high-carbohydrate isoenergetic diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77, 43–50.
Schwarz, JM, Neese, R, Shackleton, CH & Hellerstein, M (1993) De novo lipogenesis during fasting and oral fructose in lean and obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Diabetes 42, Suppl. 39A.
Schwarz, JM, Neese, RA, Turner, S, Dare, D & Hellerstein, MK (1995) Short-term alterations in carbohydrate energy intake in humans. Striking effects on hepatic glucose production, de novo lipogenesis, lipolysis, and whole-body fuel selection. Journal of Clinical Investigation 96, 2735–2743.
Sidossis, LS, Stuart, CA, Shulman, GI, Lopaschuk, GD & Wolfe, RR (1996) Glucose plus insulin regulate fat oxidation by controlling the rate of fatty acid entry into the mitochondria. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98, 2244–2250.
Stacpoole, PW, von Bergmann, K, Kilgore, LL, Zech, LA & Fisher, WR (1991) Nutritional regulation of cholesterol synthesis and apolipoprotein B kinetics: studies in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and normal subjects treated with a high carbohydrate, low fat diet. Journal of Lipid Research 32, 1837–1848.
Truswell, AS (1994) Food carbohydrates and plasma lipids – an update. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 710S–718S.
Vessby, B, Unsitupa, M, Hermansen, K, Riccardi, G, Rivellese, AA, Tapsell, LC et al. (2001) Substituting dietary saturated for monounsaturated fat impairs insulin sensitivity in healthy men and women: The KANWU Study. Diabetologia 44, 312–319.
Vidon, C, Boucher, P, Cachefo, A, Peroni, O, Diraison, F & Beylot, M (2001) Effects of isoenergetic high-carbohydrate compared with high-fat diets on human cholesterol synthesis and expression of key regulatory genes of cholesterol metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73, 878–884.
Vrana, A, Fabry, P, Slabochova, Z & Kazdova, L (1974) Effect of dietary fructose on free fatty acid release from adipose tissue and serum free fatty acid concentration in the rat. Nutrition and Metabolism 17, 74–83.
West, CE, Sullivan, DR, Katan, MB, Halferkamps, IL & van der Torre, HW (1990) Boys from populations with high-carbohydrate intake have higher fasting triglyceride levels than boys from populations with high-fat intake. American Journal of Epidemiology 131, 271–282.
Yost, TJ, Jensen, DR, Haugen, BR & Eckel, RH (1998) Effect of dietary macronutrient composition on tissue-specific lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin action in normal-weight subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, 296–302.