Barsheshet, A, Garty, M, Grossman, E, Sandach, A, Lewis, BS, Gottlieb, S et al. (2006) Admission blood glucose level and mortality among hospitalised nondiabetic patients with heart failure. Archives of Internal Medicine 166, 1613–1619.
Brunkhorst, FM, Kuhnt, E, Engel, C, Meier Hellmann, A, Ragaller, M, Quintel, M et al. (2005) Intensive insulin therapy in patient with severe sepsis and septic shock is associated with an increased rate of hypoglycaemia – results from a randomized multicenter study (VISEP). Infection 33, Suppl. 1, 19.
Capes, SE, Hunt, D, Malmberg, K, Pathak, P & Gerstein, HC (2001) Stress hyperglycaemia and prognosis of stroke in nondiabetic and diabetic patients: a systematic overview. Stroke 32, 2426–2432.
Capes, SE, Hunt, D, Malmberg, K & Gerstein, HC (2000) Stress hyperglycaemia and increased risk of death after myocardial infarction with and without diabetes: A systematic overview. Lancet 355, 773–778.
Dellinger, RP, Carlet, JM, Masur, H, Gerlach, H, Calandra, T, Cohen, J et al. (2004) Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Critical Care Medicine 32, 858–873.
Finney, SJ, Zekveld, C, Elia, A & Evans, TW (2003) Glucose control and mortality in critically ill patients. Journal of the American Medical Association 290, 2041–2047.
Jeremitsky, E, Olmert, LA, Dunham, CM, Wilberger, J & Rodriguez, A (2005) The impact of hyperglycaemia on patients with severe brain injury. Journal of Trauma 58, 47–50.
Khan, AI, Vasquez, Y, Gray, J, Wians, FH & Kroll, MH (2006) The variability of results between point-of-care testing glucose meters and the central laboratory analyser. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 130, 1527–1532.
Knaus, WA, Draper, EA, Wagner, DP & Zimmerman, JE (1985) APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system. Critical Care Medicine 13, 818–829.
Krinsley, JS (2003) Association between hyperglycaemia and increased mortality in a heterogenous population of critically ill patients. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 78, 1471–1478.
Krinsley, JS (2004) Effect of an intensive glucose management protocol on the mortality of critically ill adult patients. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 79, 992–1000.
Marik, PE & Raghaven, M (2006) Stress hyperglycaemia, insulin and immunomodulation in sepsis. In Applied Physiology in Intensive Care Medicine, pp. 240–247 [Pinsky, MR, Brochard, L and Mancebo, J editors] Berlin: Springer.
Meijering, S, Corstjens, AM, Tulleken, JE, Meertens, JHJM, Zijlstra, JG & Ligtenberg, JJM (2006) Towards a feasible algorithm for tight glycaemic control in critically ill patients: a systematic review of the literature. Critical Care 10, R19; available at http://ccforum.com/content/10/1/R19
Pittas, AG, Siegel, RD & Lau, J (2004) Insulin therapy for critically ill hospitalised patients. Archives of Internal Medicine 164, 2005–2011.
Turina, M, Christ-Crain, M & Polk, H (2006) Diabetes and hyperglycaemia: Strict glycaemic control. Critical Care Medicine 34, S291–S300.
Van den Berghe, G, Wilmer, A, Hermans, G, Meersseman, W, Wouters, PJ, Milants, I, Van Wijngaerden, E, Bobbaers, H & Bouillon, R (2006) Intensive insulin therapy in the medical ICU. New England Journal of Medicine 354, 449–461.
Van den Berghe, G, Wouters, PJ, Bouillon, R, Weekers, F, Verwaest, C, Schetz, M, Vlasselaers, D, Ferdinande, P & Lauwers, P (2003) Outcome benefit of intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill: insulin dose versus glycaemic control. Critical Care Medicine 31, 359–366.
Van Den Berghe, G, Wouters, P, Weekers, F, Verwaest, C, Bruyninckx, F, Schetz, M, Vlasselaers, D, Ferdinande, P, Lauwers, P & Bouillon, R (2001) Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. New England Journal of Medicine 345, 1359–1367.