Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Contribution of the mesolimbic dopamine system in mediating the effects of leptin and ghrelin on feeding

  • R. van Zessen (a1), G. van der Plasse (a1) and R. A. H. Adan (a1)

Abstract

Feeding behaviour is crucial for the survival of an organism and is regulated by different brain circuits. Among these circuits the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is implicated in the anticipation and motivation for food rewards. This system consists of the dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and their projections to different cortico-limbic structures such as the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex. While the importance of this system in motivational drive for different rewards, including drugs of abuse, has been clearly established, its role in energy balance remains largely unexplored. Evidence suggests that peripheral hormones such as leptin and ghrelin are involved in the anticipation and motivation for food and this might be partially mediated through their effects on the VTA. Yet, it remains to be determined whether these effects are direct effects of ghrelin and leptin onto VTA DA neurons, and to what extent indirect effects through other brain areas contribute. Elucidation of the role of leptin and ghrelin signalling on VTA DA neurons in relation to disruptions of energy balance might provide important insights into the role of this neural circuit in obesity and anorexia nervosa.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Contribution of the mesolimbic dopamine system in mediating the effects of leptin and ghrelin on feeding
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Contribution of the mesolimbic dopamine system in mediating the effects of leptin and ghrelin on feeding
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Contribution of the mesolimbic dopamine system in mediating the effects of leptin and ghrelin on feeding
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Professor Roger Adan, fax +31 887569032, email r.a.h.adan@umcutrecht.

References

Hide All
1. Kelley, AE, Baldo, BA, Pratt, WE et al. (2005) Corticostriatal-hypothalamic circuitry and food motivation: integration of energy, action and reward. Physiol Behav 86, 773795.
2. Fields, HL, Hjelmstad, GO, Margolis, EB et al. (2007) Ventral tegmental area neurons in learned appetitive behavior and positive reinforcement. Annu Rev Neurosci 30, 289316.
3. Narayanan, NS, Guarnieri, DJ, DiLeone, RJ (2010) Metabolic hormones, dopamine circuits, and feeding. Front Neuroendocrinol 31, 104112.
4. Palmiter, RD (2007) Is dopamine a physiologically relevant mediator of feeding behavior? Trends Neurosci 30, 375381.
5. Margolis, EB, Lock, H, Hjelmstad, GO et al. (2006) The ventral tegmental area revisited: is there an electrophysiological marker for dopaminergic neurons? J Physiol 577, 907924.
6. Nair-Roberts, RG, Chatelain-Badie, SD, Benson, E et al. (2008) Stereological estimates of dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and retrorubral field in the rat. Neuroscience 152, 10241031.
7. Yamaguchi, T, Wang, HL, Li, X et al. (2011) Mesocorticolimbic glutamatergic pathway. J Neurosci 31, 84768490.
8. Schultz, W (2007) Multiple dopamine functions at different time courses. Annu Rev Neurosci 30, 259288.
9. Wightman, RM, Robinson, DL (2002) Transient changes in mesolimbic dopamine and their association with ‘reward’. J Neurochem 82, 721735.
10. Gonon, F (1997) Prolonged and extrasynaptic excitatory action of dopamine mediated by D1 receptors in the rat striatum in vivo . J Neurosci 17, 59725978.
11. Schultz, W, Dayan, P, Montague, PR (1997) A neural substrate of prediction and reward. Science 275, 15931599.
12. Schultz, W (2007) Behavioral dopamine signals. Trends Neurosci 30, 203210.
13. Yun, IA, Wakabayashi, KT, Fields, HL et al. (2004) The ventral tegmental area is required for the behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal firing responses to incentive cues. J Neurosci 24, 29232933.
14. Schultz, W (2010) Multiple functions of dopamine neurons. F1000 Biol Rep 2, 2.
15. Bromberg-Martin, ES, Matsumoto, M, Hikosaka, O (2010) Dopamine in motivational control: rewarding, aversive, and alerting. Neuron 68, 815834.
16. Tobler, PN, Fiorillo, CD, Schultz, W (2005) Adaptive coding of reward value by dopamine neurons. Science 307, 16421645.
17. Waelti, P, Dickinson, A, Schultz, W (2001) Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory. Nature 412, 4348.
18. Fiorillo, CD, Tobler, PN, Schultz, W (2003) Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons. Science 299, 18981902.
19. Day, JJ, Roitman, MF, Wightman, RM et al. (2007) Associative learning mediates dynamic shifts in dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens. Nat Neurosci 10, 10201028.
20. Beyene, M, Carelli, RM, Wightman, RM (2010) Cue-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell tracks reinforcer magnitude during intracranial self-stimulation. Neuroscience 169, 16821688.
21. Roitman, MF, Stuber, GD, Phillips, PE et al. (2004) Dopamine operates as a subsecond modulator of food seeking. J Neurosci 24, 12651271.
22. Nicola, SM, Taha, SA, Kim, SW et al. (2005) Nucleus accumbens dopamine release is necessary and sufficient to promote the behavioral response to reward-predictive cues. Neuroscience 135, 10251033.
23. Roesch, MR, Calu, DJ, Schoenbaum, G (2007) Dopamine neurons encode the better option in rats deciding between differently delayed or sized rewards. Nat Neurosci 10, 16151624.
24. Cohen, JY, Haesler, S, Vong, L et al. (2012) Neuron-type-specific signals for reward and punishment in the ventral tegmental area. Nature 482, 8588.
25. Salamone, JD, Wisniecki, A, Carlson, BB et al. (2001) Nucleus accumbens dopamine depletions make animals highly sensitive to high fixed ratio requirements but do not impair primary food reinforcement. Neuroscience 105, 863870.
26. Cousins, MS, Sokolowski, JD, Salamone, JD (1993) Different effects of nucleus accumbens and ventrolateral striatal dopamine depletions on instrumental response selection in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 46, 943951.
27. Ikemoto, S, Panksepp, J (1996) Dissociations between appetitive and consummatory responses by pharmacological manipulations of reward-relevant brain regions. Behav Neurosci 110, 331345.
28. Nowend, KL, Arizzi, M, Carlson, BB et al. (2001) D1 or D2 antagonism in nucleus accumbens core or dorsomedial shell suppresses lever pressing for food but leads to compensatory increases in chow consumption. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 69, 373382.
29. Szczypka, MS, Kwok, K, Brot, MD et al. (2001) Dopamine production in the caudate putamen restores feeding in dopamine-deficient mice. Neuron 30, 819828.
30. Ungerstedt, U (1971) Adipsia and aphagia after 6-hydroxydopamine induced degeneration of the nigro-striatal dopamine system. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 367, 95122.
31. Salamone, JD, Steinpreis, RE, McCullough, LD et al. (1991) Haloperidol and nucleus accumbens dopamine depletion suppress lever pressing for food but increase free food consumption in a novel food choice procedure. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 104, 515521.
32. Salamone, JD, Mahan, K, Rogers, S (1993) Ventrolateral striatal dopamine depletions impair feeding and food handling in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 44, 605610.
33. Acosta-Galvan, G, Yi, CX, van der Vliet, J et al. (2011) Interaction between hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus determines intensity of food anticipatory behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108, 58135818.
34. Ribeiro, AC, LeSauter, J, Dupre, C et al. (2009) Relationship of arousal to circadian anticipatory behavior: ventromedial hypothalamus: one node in a hunger-arousal network. Eur J Neurosci 30, 17301738.
35. King, CM, Hentges, ST (2011) Relative number and distribution of murine hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons innervating distinct target sites. PLoS One 6, e25864.
36. Schultz, W (2010) Dopamine signals for reward value and risk: basic and recent data. Behav Brain Funct 6, 24.
37. Wise, RA (2004) Dopamine, learning and motivation. Nat Rev Neurosci 5, 483494.
38. Wise, RA (2006) Role of brain dopamine in food reward and reinforcement. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361, 11491158.
39. Berridge, KC (1996) Food reward: brain substrates of wanting and liking. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 20, 125.
40. Berridge, KC, Robinson, TE (1998) What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Res Brain Res Rev 28, 309369.
41. Witten, IB, Steinberg, EE, Lee, SY et al. (2011) Recombinase-driver rat lines: tools, techniques, and optogenetic application to dopamine-mediated reinforcement. Neuron 72, 721733.
42. Adamantidis, AR, Tsai, HC, Boutrel, B et al. (2011) Optogenetic interrogation of dopaminergic modulation of the multiple phases of reward-seeking behavior. J Neurosci 31, 1082910835.
43. Tsai, HC, Zhang, F, Adamantidis, A et al. (2009) Phasic firing in dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for behavioral conditioning. Science 324, 10801084.
44. Pothos, EN, Creese, I, Hoebel, BG (1995) Restricted eating with weight loss selectively decreases extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and alters dopamine response to amphetamine, morphine, and food intake. J Neurosci 15, 66406650.
45. Verhagen, LA, Luijendijk, MC, Korte-Bouws, GA et al. (2009) Dopamine and serotonin release in the nucleus accumbens during starvation-induced hyperactivity. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 19, 309316.
46. Stuber, GD, Evans, SB, Higgins, MS et al. (2002) Food restriction modulates amphetamine-conditioned place preference and nucleus accumbens dopamine release in the rat. Synapse 46, 8390.
47. Cadoni, C, Solinas, M, Valentini, V et al. (2003) Selective psychostimulant sensitization by food restriction: differential changes in accumbens shell and core dopamine. Eur J Neurosci 18, 23262334.
48. Hernandez, L, Hoebel, BG (1988) Food reward and cocaine increase extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens as measured by microdialysis. Life Sci 42, 17051712.
49. Carr, KD (2007) Chronic food restriction: enhancing effects on drug reward and striatal cell signaling. Physiol Behav 91, 459472.
50. Fulton, S (2010) Appetite and reward. Front Neuroendocrinol 31, 85103.
51. Sulzer, D, Chen, TK, Lau, YY et al. (1995) Amphetamine redistributes dopamine from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol and promotes reverse transport. J Neurosci 15, 41024108.
52. Zhang, M, Balmadrid, C, Kelley, AE (2003) Nucleus accumbens opioid, GABaergic, and dopaminergic modulation of palatable food motivation: contrasting effects revealed by a progressive ratio study in the rat. Behav Neurosci 117, 202211.
53. Domingos, AI, Vaynshteyn, J, Voss, HU et al. (2011) Leptin regulates the reward value of nutrient. Nat Neurosci 14, 15621568.
54. Aberman, JE, Ward, SJ, Salamone, JD (1998) Effects of dopamine antagonists and accumbens dopamine depletions on time-constrained progressive-ratio performance. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 61, 341348.
55. Figlewicz, DP, Bennett, JL, Naleid, AM et al. (2006) Intraventricular insulin and leptin decrease sucrose self-administration in rats. Physiol Behav 89, 611616.
56. la Fleur, SE, Vanderschuren, LJ, Luijendijk, MC et al. (2007) A reciprocal interaction between food-motivated behavior and diet-induced obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 31, 12861294.
57. Alsio, J, Olszewski, PK, Norback, AH et al. (2010) Dopamine D1 receptor gene expression decreases in the nucleus accumbens upon long-term exposure to palatable food and differs depending on diet-induced obesity phenotype in rats. Neuroscience 171, 779787.
58. Johnson, PM, Kenny, PJ (2010) Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats. Nat Neurosci 13, 635641.
59. Wang, GJ, Volkow, ND, Logan, J et al. (2001) Brain dopamine and obesity. Lancet 357, 354357.
60. Li, Y, South, T, Han, M et al. (2009) High-fat diet decreases tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression irrespective of obesity susceptibility in mice. Brain Res 1268, 181189.
61. Davis, JF, Tracy, AL, Schurdak, JD et al. (2008) Exposure to elevated levels of dietary fat attenuates psychostimulant reward and mesolimbic dopamine turnover in the rat. Behav Neurosci 122, 12571263.
62. Wang, GJ, Volkow, ND, Fowler, JS (2002) The role of dopamine in motivation for food in humans: implications for obesity. Expert Opin Ther Targets 6, 601609.
63. Philpot, KB, Dallvechia-Adams, S, Smith, Y et al. (2005) A cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript peptide projection from the lateral hypothalamus to the ventral tegmental area. Neuroscience 135, 915925.
64. Greenwell, TN, Zangen, A, Martin-Schild, S et al. (2002) Endomorphin-1 and -2 immunoreactive cells in the hypothalamus are labeled by fluoro-gold injections to the ventral tegmental area. J Comp Neurol 454, 320328.
65. Hommel, JD, Trinko, R, Sears, RM et al. (2006) Leptin receptor signaling in midbrain dopamine neurons regulates feeding. Neuron 51, 801810.
66. Abizaid, A, Liu, ZW, Andrews, ZB et al. (2006) Ghrelin modulates the activity and synaptic input organization of midbrain dopamine neurons while promoting appetite. J Clin Invest 116, 32293239.
67. Yamanaka, A, Beuckmann, CT, Willie, JT et al. (2003) Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice. Neuron 38, 701713.
68. Lawrence, CB, Snape, AC, Baudoin, FM et al. (2002) Acute central ghrelin and GH secretagogues induce feeding and activate brain appetite centers. Endocrinology 143, 155162.
69. Borgland, SL, Chang, SJ, Bowers, MS et al. (2009) Orexin A/hypocretin-1 selectively promotes motivation for positive reinforcers. J Neurosci 29, 1121511225.
70. Leinninger, GM, Opland, DM, Jo, YH et al. (2011) Leptin action via neurotensin neurons controls orexin, the mesolimbic dopamine system and energy balance. Cell Metab 14, 313323.
71. Thompson, RH, Canteras, NS, Swanson, LW (1996) Organization of projections from the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus: a PHA-L study in the rat. J Comp Neurol 376, 143173.
72. Johnson, SW, North, RA (1992) Opioids excite dopamine neurons by hyperpolarization of local interneurons. J Neurosci 12, 483488.
73. Korotkova, TM, Sergeeva, OA, Eriksson, KS et al. (2003) Excitation of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons by orexins/hypocretins. J Neurosci 23, 711.
74. Cheung, CC, Clifton, DK, Steiner, RA (1997) Proopiomelanocortin neurons are direct targets for leptin in the hypothalamus. Endocrinology 138, 44894492.
75. Schwartz, MW, Woods, SC, Porte, D Jr et al. (2000) Central nervous system control of food intake. Nature 404, 661671.
76. Schwartz, MW, Seeley, RJ, Campfield, LA et al. (1996) Identification of targets of leptin action in rat hypothalamus. J Clin Invest 98, 11011106.
77. van den Top, M, Lee, K, Whyment, AD et al. (2004) Orexigen-sensitive NPY/AgRP pacemaker neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Nat Neurosci 7, 493494.
78. Nakazato, M, Murakami, N, Date, Y et al. (2001) A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding. Nature 409, 194198.
79. Campfield, LA, Smith, FJ, Guisez, Y et al. (1995) Recombinant mouse OB protein: evidence for a peripheral signal linking adiposity and central neural networks. Science 269, 546549.
80. Grill, HJ, Schwartz, MW, Kaplan, JM et al. (2002) Evidence that the caudal brainstem is a target for the inhibitory effect of leptin on food intake. Endocrinology 143, 239246.
81. Pelleymounter, MA, Cullen, MJ, Baker, MB et al. (1995) Effects of the obese gene product on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice. Science 269, 540543.
82. Zhang, Y, Proenca, R, Maffei, M et al. (1994) Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature 372, 425432.
83. Speakman, J, Hambly, C, Mitchell, S et al. (2007) Animal models of obesity. Obes Rev 8, Suppl. 1, 5561.
84. Morton, GJ, Blevins, JE, Kim, F et al. (2009) The action of leptin in the ventral tegmental area to decrease food intake is dependent on Jak-2 signaling. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297, E202E210.
85. Fulton, S, Pissios, P, Manchon, RP et al. (2006) Leptin regulation of the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway. Neuron 51, 811822.
86. Figlewicz, DP, Evans, SB, Murphy, J et al. (2003) Expression of receptors for insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) of the rat. Brain Res 964, 107115.
87. Leshan, RL, Opland, DM, Louis, GW et al. (2010) Ventral tegmental area leptin receptor neurons specifically project to and regulate cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript neurons of the extended central amygdala. J Neurosci 30, 57135723.
88. Krugel, U, Schraft, T, Kittner, H et al. (2003) Basal and feeding-evoked dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens is depressed by leptin. Eur J Pharmacol 482, 185187.
89. Liu, J, Perez, SM, Zhang, W et al. (2011) Selective deletion of the leptin receptor in dopamine neurons produces anxiogenic-like behavior and increases dopaminergic activity in amygdala. Mol Psychiatry 16, 10241038.
90. Roseberry, AG, Painter, T, Mark, GP et al. (2007) Decreased vesicular somatodendritic dopamine stores in leptin-deficient mice. J Neurosci 27, 70217027.
91. Pfaffly, J, Michaelides, M, Wang, GJ et al. (2010) Leptin increases striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding in leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice. Synapse 64, 503510.
92. Thanos, PK, Michaelides, M, Piyis, YK et al. (2008) Food restriction markedly increases dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in a rat model of obesity as assessed with in-vivo muPET imaging ([11C] raclopride) and in-vitro ([3H] spiperone) autoradiography. Synapse 62, 5061.
93. Matheny, M, Shapiro, A, Tumer, N et al. (2011) Region-specific diet-induced and leptin-induced cellular leptin resistance includes the ventral tegmental area in rats. Neuropharmacology 60, 480487.
94. Wettschureck, N, Moers, A, Wallenwein, B et al. (2005) Loss of Gq/11 family G proteins in the nervous system causes pituitary somatotroph hypoplasia and dwarfism in mice. Mol Cell Biol 25, 19421948.
95. Zigman, JM, Jones, JE, Lee, CE et al. (2006) Expression of ghrelin receptor mRNA in the rat and the mouse brain. J Comp Neurol 494, 528548.
96. Mondal, MS, Date, Y, Yamaguchi, H et al. (2005) Identification of ghrelin and its receptor in neurons of the rat arcuate nucleus. Regul Pept 126, 5559.
97. Tschop, M, Smiley, DL, Heiman, ML (2000) Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents. Nature 407, 908913.
98. Horvath, TL, Diano, ST, Schop, M (2003) Ghrelin in hypothalamic regulation of energy balance. Curr Top Med Chem 3, 921927.
99. Verhagen, LA, Egecioglu, E, Luijendijk, MC et al. (2011) Acute and chronic suppression of the central ghrelin signaling system reveals a role in food anticipatory activity. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 21, 384392.
100. LeSauter, J, Hoque, N, Weintraub, M et al. (2009) Stomach ghrelin-secreting cells as food-entrainable circadian clocks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106, 1358213587.
101. Blum, ID, Patterson, Z, Khazall, R et al. (2009) Reduced anticipatory locomotor responses to scheduled meals in ghrelin receptor deficient mice. Neuroscience 164, 351359.
102. Guan, XM, Yu, H, Palyha, OC et al. (1997) Distribution of mRNA encoding the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in brain and peripheral tissues. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 48, 2329.
103. Quarta, D, Di Francesco, C, Melotto, S et al. (2009) Systemic administration of ghrelin increases extracellular dopamine in the shell but not the core subdivision of the nucleus accumbens. Neurochem Int 54, 8994.
104. Skibicka, KP, Hansson, C, Alvarez-Crespo, M et al. (2011) Ghrelin directly targets the ventral tegmental area to increase food motivation. Neuroscience 180, 129137.
105. King, SJ, Isaacs, AM, O'Farrell, E et al. (2011) Motivation to obtain preferred foods is enhanced by ghrelin in the ventral tegmental area. Horm Behav 60, 572580.
106. Naleid, AM, Grace, MK, Cummings, DE et al. (2005) Ghrelin induces feeding in the mesolimbic reward pathway between the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens. Peptides 26, 22742279.
107. Jerlhag, E, Egecioglu, E, Dickson, SL et al. (2007) Ghrelin administration into tegmental areas stimulates locomotor activity and increases extracellular concentration of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Addict Biol 12, 616.
108. Egecioglu, E, Jerlhag, E, Salome, N et al. (2010) Ghrelin increases intake of rewarding food in rodents. Addict Biol 15, 304311.
109. Berthoud, HR, Munzberg, H (2011) The lateral hypothalamus as integrator of metabolic and environmental needs: from electrical self-stimulation to opto-genetics. Physiol Behav 104, 2939.
110. Fadel, J, Deutch, AY (2002) Anatomical substrates of orexin-dopamine interactions: lateral hypothalamic projections to the ventral tegmental area. Neuroscience 111, 379387.
111. Cason, AM, Smith, RJ, Tahsili-Fahadan, P et al. (2010) Role of orexin/hypocretin in reward-seeking and addiction: implications for obesity. Physiol Behav 100, 419428.
112. Leinninger, GM, Jo, YH, Leshan, RL et al. (2009) Leptin acts via leptin receptor-expressing lateral hypothalamic neurons to modulate the mesolimbic dopamine system and suppress feeding. Cell Metab 10, 8998.
113. Kelley, AE, Cador, M, Stinus, L et al. (1989) Neurotensin, substance P, neurokinin-alpha, and enkephalin: injection into ventral tegmental area in the rat produces differential effects on operant responding. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 97, 243252.
114. Toshinai, K, Date, Y, Murakami, N et al. (2003) Ghrelin-induced food intake is mediated via the orexin pathway. Endocrinology 144, 15061512.
115. Verhagen, LA, Luijendijk, MC, de Groot, JW et al. (2011) Anticipation of meals during restricted feeding increases activity in the hypothalamus in rats. Eur J Neurosci 34, 14851491.
116. Merkestein, M, Brans, MA, Luijendijk, MC et al. (2012) Ghrelin mediates anticipation to a palatable meal in rats. Obesity (Silver Spring) 20, 963971.
117. Ribeiro, AC, Ceccarini, G, Dupre, C et al. (2011) Contrasting effects of leptin on food anticipatory and total locomotor activity. PLoS One 6, e23364.
118. Mistlberger, RE, Marchant, EG (1999) Enhanced food-anticipatory circadian rhythms in the genetically obese Zucker rat. Physiol Behav 66, 329335.
119. Persons, JE, Stephan, FK, Bays, ME (1993) Diet-induced obesity attenuates anticipation of food access in rats. Physiol Behav 54, 5564.
120. Davis, JF, Choi, DL, Clegg, DJ et al. (2011) Signaling through the ghrelin receptor modulates hippocampal function and meal anticipation in mice. Physiol Behav 103, 3943.
121. Garzon, M, Pickel, VM (2001) Plasmalemmal mu-opioid receptor distribution mainly in nondopaminergic neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area. Synapse 41, 311328.
122. Korotkova, TM, Brown, RE, Sergeeva, OA et al. (2006) Effects of arousal- and feeding-related neuropeptides on dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of the rat. Eur J Neurosci 23, 26772685.
123. Lindblom, J, Opmane, B, Mutulis, F et al. (2001) The MC4 receptor mediates alpha-MSH induced release of nucleus accumbens dopamine. Neuroreport 12, 21552158.

Keywords

Contribution of the mesolimbic dopamine system in mediating the effects of leptin and ghrelin on feeding

  • R. van Zessen (a1), G. van der Plasse (a1) and R. A. H. Adan (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed