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        Associations between vitamin K status and skeletal and cardio-metabolic health indices in 18–64-year-old Irish adults
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        Associations between vitamin K status and skeletal and cardio-metabolic health indices in 18–64-year-old Irish adults
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This abstract was awarded the prize for best Nutrition Society Irish Section poster original communication.

A high proportion of Irish men and women have mean daily vitamin K intakes which are likely inadequate. For example, we had previously shown that 52 % of a nationally representative sample of the adult Irish population from 1997–1999( 1 ) had vitamin K1 intakes below the UK recommended 1 µg/kg body weight( 2 ), and 17 % and 27 % of men and women, respectively, met the current US adequate intakes for vitamin K.( 3 ) This may have consequences for vitamin K status and associated skeletal and non-skeletal health effects. This analysis explored associations between biochemical measures of vitamin K status and a biomarker of bone turnover and with a metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk score, and its component risk factors as defined by the International Diabetes Federation( 4 ). Data [dietary, lifestyle and risk factor] and serum were accessed from the most recent nationally representative sample of Irish adults (National Adult Nutrition Survey 2008–2010) (www.iuna.net). Vitamin K status measures (undercarboxylated osteocalcin [GLU], carboxylated osteocalcin [GLA], and % osteocalcin undercarboxylated [%ucOC]) and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTx; bone resorption marker) were measured in 692 adults by immunoassay.

*Adjustment for age, sex, serum 25(OH)D, dietary calcium, smoking, HRT/oral contraception, PTH, BMI, total osteocalcin

**Adjustment for age, sex, smoking and vitamin K intake. NS, non-significant association (P > 0·05)

Serum %ucOC was a significant (P < 0·0001) positive determinant of serum CTx, adjusting for confounders (model explained 48 % variability in serum CTx). Associations with MetS risk factors were driven by age. Surprisingly, in younger adults (<50y), serum %ucOC was significantly (P < 0·05) lower [Median (IQR)38·8 (27·5, 52·5) %] in those with central obesity and an additional MetS risk compared to those with no MetS risk[42·5 (30·4, 59·6) %], accounting for sex, smoking and vitamin K intake.

The pathogenesis for MetS and each of its components is complex and poorly understood. In addition to its role in skeletal health, vitamin K status may influence specific cardio-metabolic risk factors, however, further investigation is warranted to establish a causal relationship.

The project was funded by the Irish Department of Agriculture, Food, and the Marine under its Food for Health Research Initiative (2007–2012).

1. Duggan, P, Cashman, KD, Flynn, A et al. (2004) Brit J Nutr. 92: 151–8
2. Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 41. London: HM Stationery Office.
3. Institute of Medicine (2001) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Manganese, Molydenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
4. International Diabetes Federation (2006). The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome http://www.idf.org/webdata/docs/Metabolic_syndrome_definition.pdf