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Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in different peanut subspecies and botanical varieties

  • M. L. Wang (a1), C. Y. Chen (a2), J. Davis (a3), B. Guo (a4), H. T. Stalker (a5) and R. N. Pittman (a1)...

Abstract

Within the cultivated peanut species (Arachis hypogaea L.), there are two subspecies comprising six botanical varieties, and the effect of botanical taxon on oil content and fatty acid composition variability is unclear. To gauge the variability, 83 peanut accessions were analyzed for oil content (expressed at 0% moisture) and fatty acid composition. We found that within the subsp. hypogaea, var. hypogaea contained a much higher amount of oil in seeds than did the var. hirsuta Köhler (520 vs. 473 g/kg, P < 0.05); within the subsp. fastigiata Waldron, the vars. aequatoriana Krapov. & W.C. Gregory and vulgaris Harz contained a similar amount of oil in seeds (491 g/kg), not significantly different from other botanical varieties, but var. fastigiata contained a higher amount of oil (500 g/kg) than the var. peruviana Krapov. & W.C. Gregory (483 g/kg). In terms of the fatty acid composition, oil from seeds of var. hypogaea contained much more oleic acid than did var. hirsuta (491 vs. 377 g/kg, P < 0.05), but much less palmitic acid (97 vs. 138 g/kg, P < 0.05%) and linoleic acid (308 vs. 402 g/kg, P < 0.05). Oil from seeds of var. vulgaris contained much more oleic acid than did var. aequatoriana (437 vs. 402 g/kg, P < 0.05), but much less linoleic acid (346 vs. 380 g/kg, P < 0.05). Significant negative correlations of oleic with palmitic and linoleic acids were detected. The information on the oil content and fatty acid composition variability among botanical varieties would be useful for peanut breeders seeking germplasm containing both high oil content and proper fatty acid composition.

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*Corresponding author. E-mail: mingli.wang@ars.usda.gov

References

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Barrientos-Priego, L, Isleib, TG and Pattee, HE (2002) Variation in oil content among Mexican and Peruvian hirsuta peanut landraces and Virginia-type hypogaea lines. Peanut Science 29: 7277.
Durrett, TP, Benning, C and Ohlrogge, J (2008) Plant triacylglycerols as feedstocks for the production of biofuels. The Plant Journal 54: 593607.
Hammond, EG, Duvick, D, Wang, T, et al. (1997) Survey of the fatty acid composition of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) germplasm and characterization of their expoxy and eicosenoic acid. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 74: 12351239.
Krapovickas, A and Gregory, WC (1994) Taxonomia del énero Arachis (Leguminosae). Bonplandia 8: 1186.
Vassiliou, EK, Gonzalez, A, Garcia, C, et al. (2009) Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid reverse the inhibitory effect of insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α both in vitro and in vivo system. Lipids in Health and Disease 8: 25.

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Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in different peanut subspecies and botanical varieties

  • M. L. Wang (a1), C. Y. Chen (a2), J. Davis (a3), B. Guo (a4), H. T. Stalker (a5) and R. N. Pittman (a1)...

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