Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

What is the role of p53 during the cyst formation of Trichinella spiralis? A comparable study between knockout mice and wild type mice

  • T. BOONMARS (a1), Z. WU (a1), I. NAGANO (a1) and Y. TAKAHASHI (a1)

Abstract

During the cyst formation of Trichinella spiralis, the infected muscle cell undergoes basophilic change and apoptosis, which results in nurse cell formation. This study revealed expression kinetics of some apoptosis genes such as p53 and its closely related genes (tumor suppressor genes p53, p53; mouse double minute 2, MDM2; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, p21waf). RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) results showed that these genes were temporarily expressed in the infected muscles during the cyst formation period, but not in normal muscles (or very low if any), which suggested the involvement of these apoptosis genes in the nurse cell formation. Cysts and neighbouring muscle cells were separately collected and RT-PCR was performed, which suggested that p53 was expressed in the cysts. An immunocytochemical study showed that p53 was expressed in the nucleoplasm of basophilic cell in the cyst and Trichinella larvae, which suggested involvement of these apoptosis genes in the nurse cell formation. The same p53 expression kinetic study was performed on p53 knockout mice. The knockout mice did not express p53 genes, but expressed the other apoptosis genes in the same kinetics with only minor exceptions, suggesting that the expressions of these genes during the cyst formation were more or less p53-independent. There were no differences in the number and morphology of the cysts between the knockout mice and wild type mice. Thus apoptosis seen during the Trichinella cyst formation can be operated in the presence or absence of p53.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Tel: +81 58 230 6366. Fax: +81 58 230 6368. E-mail: yu3@cc.gifu-u.ac.jp

References

Hide All

REFERENCES

Alarcon-Vargas, D. and Ronai, Z. ( 2002). p53-Mdm2 – the affair that never ends. Carcinogenesis 23, 541547.
Almog, N., Milyavsky, M., Stambolsky, P., Falcovitz, A., Goldfinger, N. and Rotter, V. ( 2001). The role of the C' terminus of murine p53 in the p53/mdm-2 regulatory loop. Carcinogenesis 22, 779785.
Boonmars, T., Wu, Z., Nagano, I. and Takahashi, Y. ( 2004 a). Expression of apoptosis related factors in muscles infected with Trichinella spiralis. Parasitology 128, 323332. DOI: 10.1017/S0031182003004530.
Boonmars, T., Wu, Z., Nagano, I., Nakada, T. and Takahashi, Y. ( 2004 b). Differences and similarities of nurse cells in cysts of Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis. Journal of helminthology 78, 716. DOI: 10.1079/JOH2003203.
Datto, M. B., Yu, Y. and Wang, X. F. ( 1995). Functional analysis of the transforming growth factor beta responsive elements in the WAF1/Cip1/p21 promoter. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 270, 2862328628.
Daujat, S., Neel, H. and Piette, J. ( 2001). MDM2: life without p53. Trends in Genetics 17, 459464. DOI: 10.1016/SO168-9525(01)02369-1.
Demidenko, Z. N. and Blagosklonny, M. V. ( 2004). Flavopiridol induces p53 via initial inhibition of Mdm2 and p21 and, independently of p53, sensitizes apoptosis-reluctant cells to tumor necrosis factor. Cancer Research 64, 36533660.
Desagher, S. and Martinou, J. C. ( 2000). Mitochondria as the central control point of apoptosis. Trends in Cell Biology 10, 369377.
Dotto, G. P. ( 2000). p21(WAF1/Cip1): more than a break to the cell cycle? Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1471, 4356. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-419X(00)00019-6.
El-Deiry, W. S. ( 1998). Regulation of p53 downstream genes. Seminar in Cancer Biology 8, 345357.
Ganguli, G. and Wasylyk, B. ( 2003). p53-independent functions of MDM2. Molecular Cancer Research 1, 10271035.
Gartel, A. L. and Tyner, A. L. ( 1999). Transcriptional regulation of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) gene. Experimental Cell Research 246, 280289. DOI: 10.1006/excr.1998.4319.
Jasmer, D. P. ( 1993). Trichinella spiralis infected skeletal muscle cells arrest in G2/M and cease muscle gene expression. The Journal of Cell Biology 121, 785793.
Halaschek-Wiener, J., Wacheck, V., Kloog, Y. and Jansen, B. ( 2004). Ras inhibition leads to transcriptional activation of p53 and down-regulation of Mdm2: two mechanisms that cooperatively increase p53 function in colon cancer cells. Cellular Signalling 16, 13191327. DOI: 10.1016/j. cellsig.2004.04.003.
Kagawa, S., Fujiwara, T., Hizuta, A., Yasuda, T., Zhang, W. W., Roth, J. A. and Tanaka, N. ( 1997). p53 expression overcomes p21WAF1/CIP1-mediated G1 arrest and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. Oncogene 16, 19031909.
Kobayashi, N., Takada, Y., Hachiya, M., Ando, K., Nakajima, N. and Akashi, M. ( 2000). TNF-alpha induced p21(WAF1) but not Bax in colon cancer cells WiDr with mutated p53: important role of protein stabilization. Cytokine 12, 17451754. DOI: 10.1006/cyto.2000.0782.
Luu, Y., Bush, J., Cheung, K. J. Jr and Li, G. ( 2002). The p53 stabilizing compound CP-31398 induces apoptosis by activating the intrinsic Bax/mitochondrial/caspase-9 pathway. Experimental Cell Research 276, 214222. DOI: 10.1006/excr.2002.5526.
Matsuo, A., Wu, Z., Nagano, I. and Takahashi, Y. ( 2000). Five types of nuclei present in the cyst of Trichinella spiralis. Parasitology 121, 203210.
Nakamura, Y. ( 2004). Isolation of p53-target genes and their functional analysis. Cancer Science 95, 711.
Parone, P. A., James, D. and Martinou, J. C. ( 2002). Mitochondria: regulating the inevitable. Biochimie 84, 105111.
Saleh, A., Srinivasula, S. M., Acharya, S., Fishel, R. and Alnemri, E. S. ( 1999). Cytochrome c and dATP-mediated oligomerization of Apaf-1 is a prerequisite for procaspase-9 activation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 274, 1794117945.
Schuler, M. and Green, D. R. ( 2001). Mechanisms of p53-dependent apoptosis. Biochemical Society Transactions 29, 684688.
Tsujimoto, Y. and Shimizu, S. ( 2000). VDAC regulation by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Cell Death and Differentiation 7, 11741181.
Vaslet, C. A., Messier, N. J. and Kane, A. B. ( 2002). Accelerated progression of asbestos-induced mesotheliomas in heterozygous p53+/− mice. Toxicological Sciences 68, 331338.
Wang, X., Michael, D., de Murcia, G., and Oren, M. ( 2002). p53 Activation by nitric oxide involves down-regulation of Mdm2. Biological Chemistry 277, 1569715702. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112068200.
Wu, X. and Deng, Y. ( 2000). Bax and BH3-domain-only proteins in p53-mediated apoptosis. Frontiers in Bioscience 7, 151156.
Wu, Z., Matsuo, A., Nakada, T., Nagano, I. and Takahashi, Y. ( 2001). Different response of satellite cells in the kinetics of myogenic regulatory factors and ultrastructural pathology after Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infection. Parasitology 123, 8594.
Wu, Z., Nagano, I., Boonmars, T. and Takahashi, Y. ( 2005). Tumor necrosis factor receptor-mediated apoptosis in Trichinella spiralis infected muscle cells. Parasitology (in the Press).
Yao, C. and Jasmer, D. P. ( 2001). Trichinella spiralis-infected muscle cells: abundant RNA polymerase II in nuclear speckle domains colocalizes with nuclear antigens. Infection and Immunity 69, 40654071. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.69.6.4065–4071.
Zhang, Z., Wang, H., Li, M., Agrawal, S., Chen, X. and Zhang R. ( 2004). MDM2 is a negative regulator of p21WAF1/CIP1, independent of p53. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 279, 1600016006. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M312264200.

Keywords

What is the role of p53 during the cyst formation of Trichinella spiralis? A comparable study between knockout mice and wild type mice

  • T. BOONMARS (a1), Z. WU (a1), I. NAGANO (a1) and Y. TAKAHASHI (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed