Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in intensively farmed pigs in Ireland

  • A. ZINTL (a1), D. NEVILLE (a2), D. MAGUIRE (a1), S. FANNING (a1), G. MULCAHY (a1), H. V. SMITH (a3) and T. DE WAAL (a1)...

Summary

Natural Cryptosporidium infections in pigs are widespread but generally apathogenic. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. in piggeries in Ireland, where the drinking water supply is particularly vulnerable to contamination with zoonotic species. Overall, infections were detected in 39 out of 342 animals (11·4%), with highest infection rates among weaners (15%) and sows (13·3%). Twenty-nine positive samples were genotyped based on SSU rRNA sequence analysis. Infections with Cryptosporidium parvum, the most important zoonotic species were rare and are likely to be of greater concern to animal handlers than suppliers of drinking water. In addition to C. parvum, Cryptosporidium suis, Cryptosporidium pig genotype II, Cryptosporidium muris and a previously undescribed genotype were identified. ABI-profiles indicated the presence of different alleles in at least 40% of all genotyped isolates. This was confirmed in 3 isolates by cloning of the PCR products. Since chronic mixed infections appear to be quite common in pigs they could be considered as models for mixed infections in immunocompromised humans.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Tel: +353 1 716 6133. Fax: +353 1 716 6185. E-mail: annetta.zintl@ucd.ie

References

Hide All
Boom, R., Sol, C. J., Salimans, M. M., Jansen, C. L., Wertheim Van, P. M. and Van Der Noordaa, J. (1990). Rapid and simple method for purification of nucleic acids. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 28, 495503.
Caccio, S. M. (2005). Molecular epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis. Parassitologia 47, 185192.
Cama, V., Gilman, R. H., Vivar, A., Ticona, E., Ortega, Y., Bern, C. and Xiao, L. (2006). Mixed Cryptosporidium infections and HIV. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12, 10251028.
Current, W. L. (1990). Techniques and laboratory maintenance of Cryptosporidium. In Cryptosporidiosis in Man and Animals (ed. Dubey, J. P., Speer, C. A. and Fayer, R.), pp. 3149. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
De Graaf, D. C., Vanopdenbosch, E., Ortega-Mora, L. M., Abbassi, H. and Peeters, V. (1999). A review of the importance of cryptosporidiosis in farm animals. International Journal for Parasitology 29, 12691287.
Enemark, H. L., Bille-Hansen, V., Lind, P., Heegaard, P. M., Vigre, H., Ahrens, P. and Thamsborg, S. M. (2003). Pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium parvum – evaluation of an animal infection model. Veterinary Parasitology 113, 3557.
Gatei, W., Wamae, C. N., Mbae, C., Waruru, A., Mulinge, E., Waithera, T., Gatika, S. M., Kamwati, S. K., Revathi, G. and Hart, C. A. (2006). Cryptosporidiosis: prevalence, genotype analysis, and symptoms associated with infections in children in Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75, 7882.
Graczyk, T. K., Lewis, E. J., Glass, G., Dasilva, A. J., Tamang, L., Girouard, A. S. and Curriero, F. C. (2007). Quantitative assessment of viable Cryptosporidium parvum load in commercial oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Chesapeake Bay. Parasitology Research 100, 247253.
Hamnes, I. S., Gjerde, B. K., Forberg, T. and Robertson, L. J. (2006). Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in suckling piglets in Norway. Veterinary Parasitology 141, 3041.
Kozlowski, M. B. (2006). Evaluation of on-farm control measures for the reduction of infection with Salmonella serotypes in finishing pigs. MVM thesis. School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin.
Kumar, S., Tamura, K. and Nei, M. (2004). MEGA3: Integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Briefings in Bioinformatics 5, 150163.
Langkjaer, R. B., Vigre, H., Enemark, H. L. and Maddox-Hyttel, C. (2007). Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark. Parasitology 134, 339350.
Lawson, A. J., Linton, D., Stanley, J. and Owen, R. J. (1997). Polymerase chain reaction detection and speciation of Campylobacter upsaliensis and C. helveticus in human faeces and comparison with culture techniques. Journal of Applied Microbiology 83, 375380.
Lefay, D., Naciri, M., Poirier, P. and Chermette, R. (2001). Efficacy of halofuginone lactate in the prevention of cryptosporidiosis in suckling calves. Veterinary Record 148, 108112.
McLauchlin, J., Amar, C., Pedraza-Diaz, S. and Nichols, G. L. (2000). Molecular epidemiological analysis of Cryptosporidium spp. in the United Kingdom: results of genotyping Cryptosporidium spp. in 1,705 fecal samples from humans and 105 fecal samples from livestock animals. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38, 39843990.
McLauchlin, J., Pedraza-Diaz, S., Amar-Hoetzeneder, C. and Nichols, G. L. (1999). Genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium strains from 218 patients with diarrhea diagnosed as having sporadic cryptosporidiosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37, 31533158.
Munoz, M., Alvarez, M., Lanza, I. and Carmenes, P. (1996). Role of enteric pathogens in the aetiology of neonatal diarrhoea in lambs and goat kids in Spain. Epidemiology and Infection 117, 203211.
Muthusamy, D., Rao, S. S., Ramani, S., Monica, B., Banerjee, I., Abraham, O. C., Mathai, D. C., Primrose, B., Muliyil, J., Wanke, C. A., Ward, H. D. and Kang, G. (2006). Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium sp. isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in South India. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 44, 632634.
Olson, M. E., Thorlakson, C. L., Deselliers, L., Morck, D. W. and McAllister, T. A. (1997). Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Canadian farm animals. Veterinary Parasitology 68, 375381.
OIE (Office International des Epizooties) (2004). Cryptosporidiosis. In Manual of Standards for Laboratory Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. 5th Edn, pp. 1082–1100. Paris. [Online.] http://www.oie.int/eng/normes/en_mmanual.htm.
Quilez, J., Sanchez-Acedo, C., Clavel, A., Del Cacho, E. and Lopez-Bernad, F. (1996). Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections in pigs in Aragon (northeastern Spain). Veterinary Parasitology 67, 8388.
Ryan, U. M., Monis, P., Enemark, H. L., Sulaiman, I., Samarasinghe, B., Read, C., Buddle, R., Robertson, I., Zhou, L., Thompson, R. C. A. and Xiao, L. (2004). Cryptosporidium suis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in pigs (Sus scrofa). Journal of Parasitology 90, 769773.
Ryan, U. M., Samarasinghe, B., Read, C., Buddle, J. R., Robertson, I. D. and Thompson, R. C. (2003). Identification of a novel Cryptosporidium genotype in pigs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69, 39703974.
Sanford, S. E. (1987). Enteric cryptosporidial infection in pigs: 184 cases (1981–1985). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 190, 695698.
Tacal, J. V. Jr., Sobieh, M. and El-Ahraf, A. (1987). Cryptosporidium in market pigs in southern California, USA. Veterinary Record 120, 615616.
Tanriverdi, S., Arslan, M. O., Akiyoshi, D. E., Tzipori, S. and Widmer, G. (2003). Identification of genotypically mixed Cryptosporidium parvum populations in humans and calves. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 130, 1322.
Tzipori, S., McCartney, E., Lawson, G. H. K., Rowland, A. C. and Campbell, I. (1981). Experimental infection of piglets with Cryptosporidium. Research in Veterinary Science 31, 358368.
Vítovec, J., Hamadejova, K., Landova, L., Kvac, M., Kveton, D. and Sak, B. (2006). Prevalence and Pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium suis in pre- and post-weaned pigs. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B 53, 239243.
Xiao, L., Moore, J. E., Ukoh, U., Gatei, W., Lowery, C. J., Murphy, T. M., Dooley, J. S., Millar, B. C., Rooney, P. J. and Rao, J. R. (2006). Prevalence and identity of Cryptosporidium spp. in pig slurry. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 44614463.
Xiao, L., Bern, C., Arrowood, M., Sulaiman, I., Zhou, L., Kawai, V., Vivar, A., Lal, A. A. and Gilman, R. H. (2002). Identification of the cryptosporidium pig genotype in a human patient. Journal of Infectious Diseases 185, 18461848.
Xiao, L., Morgan, U. M., Limor, J., Escalante, A., Arrowood, M., Shulaw, W., Thompson, R. C., Fayer, R. and Lal, A. A. (1999). Genetic diversity within Cryptosporidium parvum and related Cryptosporidium species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, 33863391.
Xiao, L., Herd, R. P. and Bowman, G. L. (1994). Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections on two Ohio pig farms with different management systems. Veterinary Parasitology 52, 331336.
Yu, J. R. and Seo, M. (2004). Infection status of pigs with Cryptosporidium parvum. Korean Journal of Parasitology 42, 4547.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed