Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Malarial infection in Aedes aegypti: effects on feeding, fecundity and metabolic rate

  • E. M. GRAY (a1) and T. J. BRADLEY (a1)

Abstract

We have examined metabolic rate, lipid and carbohydrate of female Aedes aegypti during 10 days following a malaria-infected bloodmeal. In parallel, we determined bloodmeal size, portions retained and diuresed, and subsequent fecundity. We found that mosquitoes obtained identical masses of blood when feeding on an infected or control host. However, infected mosquitoes lost more mass during diuresis and retained a smaller mass. Infection led to a significant reduction in fecundity, the extent of which could not be explained by the difference in post-diuresis bloodmeal mass alone. We found no differences in lipid or carbohydrate content between infected and control mosquitoes during the 10 days post-infection, although infected mosquitoes had a lower body mass than controls. Metabolic rates were not different between groups, except during blood digestion, where the metabolic rate was lower in infected mosquitoes. These results suggest that infection by malaria does not lead to an increase in metabolic rate during the phases of midgut invasion and sporogony. However, infection does have a measurable effect on fecundity and subsequent body mass of the infected females.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine CA 92697-2525, USA. Tel: +949 824 7038. Fax: +949 824 2181. E-mail: djemilie@gmail.com

References

Hide All

REFERENCES

Ahmed, A. M., Maingon, R., Romans, P. and Hurd, M. ( 2001). Effects of malaria infection on vitellogenesis in Anopheles gambiae during two gonotrophic cycles. Insect Molecular Biology 10, 347356.
Bennett, V. A., Kukal, O. and Lee, R. E. Jr. ( 1999). Metabolic opportunists: feeding and temperature influence the rate and pattern of respiration in the high arctic woollybear caterpillar Gynaephora groenlandica (Lymantriidae). Journal of Experimental Biology 202, 4753.
Borovsky, D., Powell, C. A., Nayar, J. K., Blalock, J. E. and Hayes, T. K. ( 1994). Characterization and localization of mosquito-gut receptors for trypsin modulating oostatic factor using a complementary peptide and immunocytochemistry. FASEB 8, 350355.
Briegel, H. and Rezzonico, L. ( 1985). Concentration of host blood protein during feeding by anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 22, 612618.
Briegel, H., Knusel, I. and Timmerman, S. E. ( 2001). Aedes aegypti: size, reserves, survival, and flight potential. Journal of Vector Ecology 26, 2131.
Briegel, H., Hefti, M. and DiMarco, E. ( 2002). Lipid metabolism during sequential gonotrophic cycles in large and small female Aedes aegypti. Journal of Insect Physiology 48, 547554.
Capurro, M. de L., Coleman, J., Beerntsen, B. T., Myles, K. M., Olson, K. E., Rocha, E., Krettli, A. U. and James, A. A. ( 2000 a). Virus-expressed, recombinant single-chain antibody blocks sporozoites infection of salivary glands in Plasmodium gallinaceum-infected Aedes aegypti. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 62, 427433.
Capurro, M. de L., Moreira-Ferro, C. K., Marinotti, O., James, A. A. and de Bianchi, A. G. ( 2000 b). Expression patterns of the larval and adult hexamerin genes of Musca domestica. Insect Molecular Biology 9, 169177.
Clements, A. N. ( 1992). The Biology of Mosquitoes Vol. 1. Development Nutrition and Reproduction. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8DE, UK.
Djawdan, M., Rose, M. R. and Bradley, T. J. ( 1997). Does selection for stress resistance lower metabolic rate? Ecology 78, 828837.
Ferguson, H. M. and Read, A. F. ( 2002). Why is the effect of malaria parasites on mosquito survival still unresolved? Trends in Parasitology 18, 256261.
Ferguson, H. M., Rivero, A. and Read, A. F. ( 2003). The influence of malaria parasite genetic diversity and anaemia on mosquito feeding and fecundity. Parasitology 127, 919.
Freitak, D., Ots, I., Vanatoa, A. and Horak, P. ( 2003). Immune response is energetically costly in white cabbage butterfly pupae. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 270 (Suppl.) S220S222.
Gordadze, A. V., Korochkina, S. E., Zakharkin, S. O. and Benes, H. ( 1999). Molecular cloning and expression of two hexamerin cDNAs from the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Insect Molecular Biology 8, 5566.
Gray, E. M. and Bradley, T. J. ( 2003). Metabolic rate in female Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae): age, size, activity and feeding effects. Journal of Medical Entomology 40, 903911.
Hacker, C. S. ( 1971). The differential effect of Plasmodium gallinaceum on the fecundity of several strains of Aedes aegypti. Journal of Invertebrate Patholology 18, 373377.
Hacker, C. S. and Kilama, W. L. ( 1974). The relationship between Plasmodium gallinaceum density and the fecundity of Aedes aegypti. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 23, 101105.
Hogg, J. C. and Hurd, H. ( 1995). Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis: the effect of high and low infection upon the egg production and blood meal size of Anopheles stephensi. Parasitology 111, 555562.
Hopwood, J. A., Ahmed, A. M., Polwart, A., Williams, G. T. and Hurd, H. ( 2001). Malaria-induced apoptosis in mosquito ovaries: a mechanism to control vector egg production. Journal of Experimental Biology 204, 27732780.
Hurd, H. ( 2001). Host fecundity reduction: a strategy for damage limitation? Trends in Parasitology 17, 363368.
Mack, S. R., Samuels, S. and Vanderberg, J. P. ( 1979). Hemolymph of Anopheles stephensi from noninfected and Plasmodium berghei-infected mosquitoes. 3. Carbohydrates. Journal of Parasitology 65, 217221.
Munstermann, L. E. ( 1997). Care and maintenance of Aedes mosquito colonies. In The Molecular Biology of Insect Disease Vectors: a Methods Manual ( ed. J. M. Crampton, C. B. Beard and C. Louis), pp. 1320. Chapman and Hall, New York.
Rivero, A. and Ferguson, H. M. ( 2003). The energetic budget of Anopheles stephensi infected with Plasmodium chabaudi: is energy depletion a mechanism for virulence? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 270, 13651371.
Scaraffia, P. Y. and Wells, M. A. ( 2003). Proline can be utilized as an energy substrate during flight of Aedes aegypti females. Journal of Insect Physiology 49, 591601.
Schiefer, B. A., Ward, R. A. and Eldridge, B. F. ( 1977). Plasmodium cynomolgi: effects of malaria infection on laboratory flight performance of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Experimental Parasitology 41, 397404.
Schmidt-Nielsen, K. ( 1997). Animal Physiology, 5th Edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Schwartz, A. and Koella, J. C. ( 2001). Trade-offs, conflicts of interest and manipulation in Plasmodium-mosquito interactions. Trends in Parasitology 17, 189194.
Shieh, J.-N. and Rossignol, P. A. ( 1992). Opposite influences of host anaemia on blood feeding rate and fecundity of mosquitoes. Parasitology 105, 159163.
Sinden, R. E. ( 1999). Plasmodium differentiation in the mosquito. Parassitologia 41, 139148.
Taylor, P. J. and Hurd, H. ( 2001). The influence of host haematocrit on the blood feeding success of Anopheles stephensi: implications for enhanced malaria transmission. Parasitology 122, 491496.
Williams, J. C., Hagedorn, H. H. and Beyenbach, K. W. ( 1983). Dynamic changes in flow rate and composition of urine during the post-bloodmeal diuresis of Aedes aegypti. Journal of Comparative Physiology (B) 153, 257265.
Ziegler, R. and Ibrahim, M. M. ( 2001). Formation of lipid reserves in fat body and eggs of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Journal of Insect Physiology 47, 623627.

Keywords

Malarial infection in Aedes aegypti: effects on feeding, fecundity and metabolic rate

  • E. M. GRAY (a1) and T. J. BRADLEY (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed