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Human African trypanosomiasis: the current situation in endemic regions and the risks for non-endemic regions from imported cases

  • Jiang-Mei Gao (a1) (a2), Zheng-Yu Qian (a1), Geoff Hide (a3), De-Hua Lai (a2), Zhao-Rong Lun (a1) (a2) (a3) and Zhong-Dao Wu (a1)...

Abstract

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and caused devastating epidemics during the 20th century. Due to effective control programs implemented in the last two decades, the number of reported cases has fallen to a historically low level. Although fewer than 977 cases were reported in 2018 in endemic countries, HAT is still a public health problem in endemic regions until it is completely eliminated. In addition, almost 150 confirmed HAT cases were reported in non-endemic countries in the last three decades. The majority of non-endemic HAT cases were reported in Europe, USA and South Africa, due to historical alliances, economic links or geographic proximity to disease-endemic countries. Furthermore, with the implementation of the ‘Belt and Road’ project, sporadic imported HAT cases have been reported in China as a warning sign of tropical diseases prevention. In this paper, we explore and interpret the data on HAT incidence and find no positive correlation between the number of HAT cases from endemic and non-endemic countries. This data will provide useful information for better understanding the imported cases of HAT globally in the post-elimination phase.

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Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Jiang-Mei Gao, E-mail: gaojm7@mail.sysu.edu.cn

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Human African trypanosomiasis: the current situation in endemic regions and the risks for non-endemic regions from imported cases

  • Jiang-Mei Gao (a1) (a2), Zheng-Yu Qian (a1), Geoff Hide (a3), De-Hua Lai (a2), Zhao-Rong Lun (a1) (a2) (a3) and Zhong-Dao Wu (a1)...

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