Skip to main content Accessibility help

Heterogeneity of metalloprotease expression in Trypanosoma cruzi

  • C. M. Lowndes (a1), M. C. Bonaldo (a2), N. Thomaz (a3) and S. Goldenberg (a2)


Expression of metalloprotease activities during metacyclogenesis of a series of strains and clones of Trypanosoma cruzi was investigated using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a range of different co-polymerized proteolytic substrates. A complex pattern of metalloprotease expression, with considerable quantitative and qualitative variability between strains and life-cycle stages, was apparent. This is in contrast to previously published data, and data presented in this study, which demonstrate a high degree of conservation of expression of cysteine proteases in different strains and clones of T. cruzi. All the metalloprotease activities identified partitioned into the detergent phase of a Triton X-114 extract, suggesting that they are membrane-bound. Developmental regulation of expression during metacyclogenesis, either in terms of quantity, or in terms of difference in relative amounts of different isoforms, was apparent for all isolates studied except CL14. However, a clearly metacyclic-specific/metacyclic-enriched metalloprotease was detected only in T. cruzi Dm28c and 383, and our results demonstrate that a metacyclic-specific metalloprotease common to all isolates of the parasite could not be detected, at least at this level of analysis.



Hide All
Ashall, F. (1990). Characterization of an alkaline peptidase of Trypanosoma cruzi and other trypanosomatids. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 38, 7788.
Bonaldo, M. C., Souto-Padron, T., De Souza, W. & Goldenberg, s. (1988). Cell-substrate adhesion during Trypanosoma cruzi differentiation. Journal of Cell Biology 106, 1349–58.
Bonaldo, M. C., D'escoffier, L. N., Salles, J. M. & Goldenberg, s. (1991). Characterization and expression of proteases during Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis. Experimental Parasitology 73, 4451.
Bontempi, E., Franke De Cazzulo, B. M., Ruiz, A. M. & Cazzulo, J. J. (1984). Purification and some properties of an acidic protease from epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 77B, 599604.
Bordier, C. (1981). Phase separation of integral membrane proteins in Triton X-114 solution. Journal of Biological Chemistry 256, 1604–7.
Bordier, C. (1987). The promastigote surface protease of Leishmania. Parasitology Today 3, 151–3.
Brener, Z. (1973). Biology of Trypanosoma cruzi. Annual Review of Microbiology 27, 347–82.
Brener, Z. & Chiari, E. (1963). Variações morfólogicas observadas em diferentes amostras de Trypanosoma cruzi. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 5, 220–44.
Camargo, E. P. (1964). Growth and differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi. I. Origin of metacyclic trypanosomes in liquid media. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 6, 93100.
Campetella, O., Martinez, J. & Cazzulo, J. J. (1990). A major cysteine proteinase is developmentally regulated in Trypanosoma cruzi. FEMS Microbiology Letters 67, 145–50.
Campetella, O., Henriksson, J., Aslund, L., Frasch, A. C. C., Pettersson, U. & Cazzulo, J. J. (1992). The major cysteine proteinase (cruzain) from Trypanosoma cruzi is encoded by multiple polymorphic tandemly organized genes located on different chromosomes. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 50, 225–34.
Cazzulo, J. J., Couso, R., Raimondi, A., Wernsdedt, C. & Hellman, U. (1989). Further characterization and partial amino acid sequence of a cysteine proteinase from Trypanosoma cruzi. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 33, 3342.
Chagas, c. (1909). Nova tripanozomiase humana. Estudo sobre a morfologia e o ciclo evolutivo do Schizotrypanum cruzi, n.gen.n.sp., agente etiológico de nova entidade mórbida no homem. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 1, 159218.
Chiari, E. (1981). Diferenciação do Trypanosoma cruzi em cultura. Ph.D. Dissertation. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Contreras, V. T., Araújo-Jorge, T. C., Bonaldo, M. C., Thomaz, N., Barbosa, H. S., Meirelles, M. N. S. L. & Goldenberg, s. (1988). Biological aspects of the Dm 28c clone of Trypanosoma cruzi after metacyclogenesis in chemically defined media. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 83, 123–33.
De Sousa, M. A. (1983). A simple method to purify biologically and antigenically preserved blood-stream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi using DEAE-cellulose column. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 78, 317–33.
Eakin, A. E., Mills, A. A., Harth, G., Mckerrow, J. H. & Craik, C. S. (1992). The sequence organization and expression of the major cysteine proteinase (cruzipain) from Trypanosoma cruzi. Journal of Biological Chemistry 267, 7461–70.
Etges, R. (1992). Identification of a surface metalloproteinase on 13 species of Leishmania isolated from humans, Crithidia fasciculata, and Herpetomonas samuelpessoai. Acta Tropica 50, 205–17.
Federici, E. E., Abelmann, W. H. & Neva, F. A. (1964). Chronic and progressive myocarditis and myositis in C3H mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 13, 272–80.
Greig, S. & Ashall, F. (1990). Electrophoretic detection of Trypanosoma cruzi peptidases. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 39, 31–8.
Harlow, E. & Lane, D. (1988). Storing and purifying antibodies. In Antibodies: a Laboratory Manual, pp. 285318. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
Heussen, C. & Dowdle, E. B. (1980). Electrophoretic analysis of plasminogen activators in polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate and copolymerized substrates. Analytical Biochemistry 102, 196202.
Itow, s. & Camargo, E. P. (1977). Proteolytic activities in cell extracts of Trypanosoma cruzi. Journal of Protozoology 24, 591–5.
Jansen, A. M., Leon, L., Machado, G. M., Silva, M. H., Souza-Leão, S. M. & Deane, M. P. (1991). Trypanosoma cruzi in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis: parasitological and serological follow-up of the acute infection. Experimental Parasitology 73, 249–59.
Mckerrow, J. H., Sun, E., Rosenthal, P. J. & Bouvier, J. (1993). The proteases and pathogenicity of parasitic protozoa. Annual Review of Microbiology 47, 821–53.
Medina-Acosta, E., Paul, S., Tomlinson, S. & Pontes-De-Carvalho, L. C. (1994). Combined occurrence of trypanosomal sialidase/transsialidase activities and leishmanial metalloproteinase gene homologues in Endotrypanum sp. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 64, 273–82.
Murta, A. C. M., Persechini, P., Souto-Padron, T., De Souza, W., Guimarães, J. A. & Scharfstein, J. (1990). Structural and functional identification of Gp 57/51 antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi as a cysteine proteinase. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 43, 2738.
North, M. J., Mottram, J. & Coombs, G. H. (1990). Cysteine proteinases of parasitic protozoa. Parasitology Today 6, 270–5.
Novy, F. G. & Mcneal, W. J. (1903). The cultivation of Trypanosoma brucei. A preliminary note. American Journal of Tropical Medicine 5, 63–8.
Sibajev, A. (1991). Trypanosoma cruzi: estudos biológicos e bioquímicos de duas populações de um mesmo isolado obtido em Didelphis marsupialis. M.Sc. Dissertation, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Silva, L. H. P. & Nussenzweig, V. (1953). Sobre uma cepa de Trypanosoma cruzi altamente virulenta para o camundongo branco. Folia Clinica Biológica São Paulo 20, 191207.
Urbina, J. A. (1994). Intermediary metabolism of Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology Today 10, 107–10.


Heterogeneity of metalloprotease expression in Trypanosoma cruzi

  • C. M. Lowndes (a1), M. C. Bonaldo (a2), N. Thomaz (a3) and S. Goldenberg (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed