Skip to main content Accessibility help

Exploring the interface between diagnostics and maps of neglected parasitic diseases



Although not new, the ‘One Health’ concept is gaining progressively more importance in parasitology. Now more than ever, veterinary and human perspectives should be closely joined in diagnosis and surveillance of neglected parasitic diseases. We argue that concerted, standardized and harmonized diagnostic and surveillance strategies are needed for the control and/or elimination of animal and human neglected parasitic infections. A key challenge is to integrate parasitological data with available geospatial methods in an accessible and user-friendly framework. We discuss the capability of new diagnostic devices (e.g. Mini-FLOTAC) and geospatial technologies supported by mobile- and electronic-based approaches as one of the research priorities of the new millennium.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples Federico II, Via Della Veterinaria 1, 80137 Napoli, Italy. E-mail:


Hide All
Albonico, M., Rinaldi, L., Sciascia, S., Morgoglione, M. E., Piemonte, M., Maurelli, M. P., Musella, V., Utzinger, J., Ali, S. M., Ame, S. M. and Cringoli, G. (2013). Comparison of three copromicroscopic methods to assess albendazole efficacy against soil-transmitted helminth infections in school-aged children on Pemba Island. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 107, 493501.
Banoo, S., Bell, D., Bossuyt, P., Herring, A., Mabey, D., Poole, F., Smith, P. G., Sriram, N., Wongsrichanalai, C., Linke, R., O'Brien, R., Perkins, M., Cunningham, J., Matsoso, P., Nathanson, C. M., Olliaro, P., Peeling, R. W., Ramsay, A. and TDR Diagnostics Evaluation Expert Panel (2010). Evaluation of diagnostic tests for infectious diseases: general principles. Nature Reviews Microbiology 8, S17S29.
Barda, B., Ianniello, D., Salvo, F., Sadutshang, T., Rinaldi, L., Cringoli, G., Burioni, R. and Albonico, M. (2013 a). “Freezing” parasites in pre-Himalayan region, Himachal Pradesh: experience with mini-FLOTAC. Acta Tropica 130C, 1116.
Barda, B. D., Rinaldi, L., Ianniello, D., Zepherine, H., Salvo, F., Sadutshang, T., Cringoli, G., Clementi, M. and Albonico, M. (2013 b). Mini-FLOTAC, an innovative direct diagnostic technique for intestinal parasitic infections: experience from the field. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7, e2344.
Barda, B., Zepherine, H., Rinaldi, L., Cringoli, G., Burioni, R., Clementi, M. and Albonico, M. (2013 c). Mini-FLOTAC and Kato-Katz: helminth eggs watching on the shore of Lake Victoria. Parasites and Vectors 31, e2344.
Beaumier, C. M., Gillespie, P. M., Hotez, P. J. and Bottazzi, M. E. (2013). New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue. Translational Research 162, 144155.
Becker, S. L., Vogt, J., Knopp, S., Panning, M., Warhurst, D. C., Polman, K., Marti, H., von Müller, L., Yansouni, C. P., Jacobs, J., Bottieau, E., Sacko, M., Rijal, S., Meyanti, F., Miles, M. A., Boelaert, M., Lutumba, P., van Lieshout, L., N'Goran, E. K., Chappuis, F. and Utzinger, J. (2013). Persistent digestive disorders in the tropics: causative infectious pathogens and reference diagnostic tests. BMC Infectious Diseases 24, 37.
Bergquist, R. and Tanner, M. (2012). Visual approaches for strengthening research, science communication and public health impact. Geospatial Health 6, 155156.
Bethony, J., Brooker, S., Albonico, M., Geiger, S. M., Loukas, A., Diemert, D. and Hotez, P. J. (2006). Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet 367, 15211532.
Boatin, B. A., Basáñez, M. G., Prichard, R. K., Awadzi, K., Barakat, R. M., García, H. H., Gazzinelli, A., Grant, W. N., McCarthy, J. S., N'Goran, E. K., Osei-Atweneboana, M. Y., Sripa, B., Yang, G. J. and Lustigman, S. (2012). A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: towards control and elimination. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6, e1547.
Bogoch, I. I., Andrews, J. R., Speich, B., Utzinger, J., Ame, S. M., Ali, S. M. and Keiser, J. (2013). Mobile phone microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections: a proof-of-concept study. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88, 626629.
Catelan, D., Rinaldi, L., Musella, V., Cringoli, G. and Biggeri, A. (2012). Statistical approaches for farm and parasitic risk profiling in geographical veterinary epidemiology. Statistical Methods for Medical Research 21, 531543.
Chammartin, F., Scholte, R. G., Guimarães, L. H., Tanner, M., Utzinger, J. and Vounatsou, P. (2013). Soil-transmitted helminth infection in South America: a systematic review and geostatistical meta-analysis. Lancet Infectious Diseases 13, 507518.
Clements, A. C., Reid, H. L., Kelly, G. C. and Hay, S. I. (2013). Further shrinking the malaria map: how can geospatial science help to achieve malaria elimination? Lancet Infectious Diseases 13, 709718.
Cringoli, G., Rinaldi, L., Maurelli, M. P. and Utzinger, J. (2010). FLOTAC: new multivalent techniques for qualitative and quantitative copromicroscopic diagnosis of parasites in animals and humans. Nature Protocols 5, 503515.
Cringoli, G., Rinaldi, L., Albonico, M., Bergquist, R. and Utzinger, J. (2013). Geospatial (s)tools: integration of advanced epidemiological sampling and novel diagnostics. Geospatial Health 7, 399404.
Day, M. J. (2011). One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases. Parasite Vectors 4, 49.
Demeler, J., Ramünke, S., Wolken, S., Ianiello, D., Rinaldi, L., Gahutu, J. B., Cringoli, G., von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G. and Krücken, J. (2013). Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR. PLoS One 19, e61285.
Duncombe, J., Clements, A., Hu, W., Weinstein, P., Ritchie, S. and Espino, F. E. (2012). Geographical information systems for dengue surveillance. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 86, 753755.
Gaafar, M. R. (2011). Use of pooled sodium acetate acetic acid formalin-preserved fecal specimens for the detection of intestinal parasites. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 25, 217222.
Glinz, D., Silué, K. D., Knopp, S., Lohourignon, L. K., Yao, K. P., Steinmann, P., Rinaldi, L., Cringoli, G., N'Goran, E. K. and Utzinger, J. (2010). Comparing diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate, ether-concentration, and FLOTAC for Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 20, e754.
Gualdieri, L., Rinaldi, L., Petrullo, L., Morgoglione, M. E., Maurelli, M. P., Musella, V., Piemonte, M., Caravano, L., Coppola, M. G. and Cringoli, G. (2011). Intestinal parasites in immigrants in the city of Naples (southern Italy). Acta Tropica 117, 196201.
Kienberger, S., Hagenlocher, M., Delmelle, E. and Casas, I. (2013). A WebGIS tool for visualizing and exploring socioeconomic vulnerability to dengue fever in Cali, Colombia. Geospatial Health 8, 313316.
Knopp, S., Rinaldi, L., Khamis, I. S., Stothard, J. R., Rollinson, D., Maurelli, M. P., Steinmann, P., Marti, H., Cringoli, G. and Utzinger, J. (2009). A single FLOTAC is more sensitive than triplicate Kato-Katz for the diagnosis of low-intensity soil-transmitted helminth infections. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 103, 347354.
Knopp, S., Speich, B., Hattendorf, J., Rinaldi, L., Mohammed, K. A., Khamis, I. S., Mohammed, A. S., Albonico, M., Rollinson, D., Marti, H., Cringoli, G. and Utzinger, J. (2011). Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz and FLOTAC for assessing anthelmintic drug efficacy. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 12, e1036.
Levecke, B., Rinaldi, L., Charlier, J., Maurelli, M. P., Morgoglione, M. E., Vercruysse, J. and Cringoli, G. (2011). Monitoring drug efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes when faecal egg counts are low: do the analytic sensitivity and the formula matter? Parasitology Research 109, 953957.
Levecke, B., Rinaldi, L., Charlier, J., Maurelli, M. P., Bosco, A., Vercruysse, J. and Cringoli, G. (2012). The bias, accuracy and precision of faecal egg count reduction test results in cattle using McMaster, Cornell-Wisconsin and FLOTAC egg counting methods. Veterinary Parasitology 188, 194199.
Magalhães, R. J., Clements, A. C., Patil, A. P., Gething, P. W. and Brooker, S. (2011). The applications of model-based geostatistics in helminth epidemiology and control. Advances in Parasitology 74, 267296.
Malone, J. B. and Bergquist, N. R. (2012). Mapping and modelling neglected tropical diseases and poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean. Geospatial Health 6, S1S5.
Mekonnen, Z., Meka, S., Ayana, M., Bogers, J., Vercruysse, J. and Levecke, B. (2013). Comparison of individual and pooled stool samples for the assessment of soil-transmitted helminth infection intensity and drug efficacy. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 16, e2189.
Morgan, E. R., Cavill, L., Curry, G. E., Wood, R. M. and Mitchell, E. S. (2005). Effects of aggregation and sample size on composite faecal egg counts in sheep. Veterinary Parasitology 131, 7987.
Morgan, E. R., Charlier, J., Hendrickx, G., Biggeri, A., Catelan, D., von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G., Demeler, J., Müller, E., van Dijk, J., Kenyon, F., Skuce, P., Höglund, J., O'Kiely, P., van Ranst, B., de Waal, T., Rinaldi, L., Cringoli, G., Hertzberg, H., Torgerson, P., Wolstenholme, A. and Vercruysse, J. (2013). Global change and helminth infections in grazing ruminants in Europe: impacts, trends and sustainable solutions. Agriculture 3, 484502.
Rinaldi, L., Coles, G. C., Maurelli, M. P., Musella, V. and Cringoli, G. (2011). Calibration and diagnostic accuracy of simple flotation, McMaster and FLOTAC for parasite egg counts in sheep. Veterinary Parasitology 177, 345352.
Rinaldi, L., Levecke, B., Bosco, A., Ianello, D., Pepe, P., Charlier, J., Cringoli, G. and Vercruysse, J. (2014). Comparison of individual and pooled faecal samples in sheep for the assessment of gastro-intestinal strongyle infection intensity and anthelmintic drug efficacy using McMaster and Mini-Flotac. Veterinary Parasitology (in press).
Roeber, F., Jex, A. R. and Gasser, R. B. (2013). Next-generation molecular-diagnostic tools for gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock, with an emphasis on small ruminants: a turning point? Advances in Parasitology 83, 267333.
Scholte, R. G. C., Schur, N., Bavia, M. E., Carvalho, E. M., Chammartin, F., Utzinger, J. and Vounatsou, P. (2013). Spatial analysis and risk mapping of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Brazil, using Bayesian geostatistical models. Geospatial Health 8, 97110.
Solomon, A. W., Engels, D., Bailey, R. L., Blake, I. M., Brooker, S., Chen, J. X., Chen, J. H., Churcher, T. S., Drakeley, C. J., Edwards, T., Fenwick, A., French, M., Gabrielli, A. F., Grassly, N. C., Harding-Esch, E. M., Holland, M. J., Koukounari, A., Lammie, P. J., Leslie, J., Mabey, D. C., Rhajaoui, M., Secor, W. E., Stothard, J. R., Wei, H., Willingham, A. L., Zhou, X. N. and Peeling, R. W. (2012). A diagnostics platform for the integrated mapping, monitoring, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases: rationale and target product profiles. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6, e1746.
Stothard, J. R., Kabatereine, N. B., Tukahebwa, E. M., Kazibwe, F., Mathieson, W., Webster, J. P. and Fenwick, A. (2005). Field evaluation of the Meade Readiview handheld microscope for diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis in Ugandan school children. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 73, 949955.
Utzinger, J., Rinaldi, L., Lohourignon, L. K., Rohner, F., Zimmermann, M. B., Tschannen, A. B., N'goran, E. K. and Cringoli, G. (2008). FLOTAC: a new sensitive technique for the diagnosis of hookworm infections in humans. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 102, 8490.
Utzinger, J., Rinaldi, L., Malone, J. B., Krauth, S. J., Kristensen, T. K., Cringoli, G. and Bergquist, R. (2011). Geospatial health: the first five years. Geospatial Health 6, 137154.
Utzinger, J., Becker, S. L., Knopp, S., Blum, J., Neumayr, A. L., Keiser, J. and Hatz, C. F. (2012). Neglected tropical diseases: diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and control. Swiss Medical Weekly 142, w13727.
Zhou, X. N. (2012). Prioritizing research for “One health – One world”. Infectious Diseases of Poverty 1, 1.
Zhou, X. N., Bergquist, R. and Tanner, M. (2013). Elimination of tropical disease through surveillance and response. Infectious Diseases of Poverty 3, 1.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Exploring the interface between diagnostics and maps of neglected parasitic diseases



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.