Anquez-Traxler, C (2011) The legal and regulatory framework of herbal medicinal products in the European Union: a focus on the traditional herbal medicines category. Drug Information Journal 45, 15–23.
Babaei, Z, Oormazdi, H, Akhlaghi, L, Rezaie, S, Razmjou, E, Soltani- Arabshahi, SK, Meamar, AR and Hadighi, R (2008) Molecular characterization of the Iranian isolates of Giardia lamblia: application of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene. Iranian Journal of Public Health 37, 75–72.
Baldrick, P (2010) The safety of chitosan as a pharmaceutical excipient. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 56, 290–299.
Barbosa, E, Calzada, F and Camposb, R (2007) In vivo antigiardial activity of three flavonoids isolated of some medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 109, 552–554.
Calzada, F, Y´epez-Mulia, L and Aguilar, A (2006) In vitro susceptibility of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia to plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 108, 367–370.
Chukwujekwu, JC, Coombes, PH, Mulholland, DA and van Staden, J (2006) Emodin, an antibacterial anthraquinone from the roots of Cassia occidentalis. South African Journal of Botany 72, 295–297.
Croft, SL, Sundar, S and Fairlamb, AH (2006) Drug resistance in leishmaniasis. Clinical microbiology reviews 19, 111–126.
Derda, M and Hadaś, E (2014) The use of phytotherapy in diseases caused by parasitic protozoa. Acta Parasitologica 60, 1–8.
Dyab, AK, Yones, DA, Ibraheim, ZZ and Hassan, TM (2016) Anti-giardial therapeutic potential of dichloromethane extracts of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa in vitro and in vivo. Parasitology Research 115, 2637–2645.
Ebrahimzadeh, MA, Chabra, A, Gharaei-Fathabad, E and Pourmorad, F (2013) Preparation of chitosan from Penicillium spp. and determination of their degree of deacetylation. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 12, 231–235.
Elmi, T, Gholami, S, Rahimi-Esboei, B, Garaili, Z, Najm, M and Tabatabaie, F (2017) Comparison of sensitivity of sucrose gradient, Wet mount and formalin – ether in detecting protozoan Giardia lamblia in stool specimens of BALB/c mice. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 11, 105–109.
Feng, Y and Xiao, L (2011) Zoonotic potential and molecular epidemiology of Giardia species and giardiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 24, 110–140.
Golami, Sh, Rahimi-Esboei, B, Mousavi, P, Marhaba, Z, Youssefi, MR and Rahimi, MT (2016) Survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 40, 88–92.
Guo, J, Sun, X, Yin, H, Wang, T, Li, Y, Zhou, C, Zhou, H, He, S and Cong, H (2018) Chitosan microsphere used as an effective system to deliver a linked antigenic peptides vaccine protect mice against acute and chronic Toxoplasmosis. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 23, 163.
Halliez, MC and Buret, AG (2013) Extra-intestinal and long term consequences of Giardia duodenalis infections. World Journal Gastroenterol 19, 8974–8985.
Hamed, M, Refahy, L and Abdel-aziz, M (2015) Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of some compounds isolated from Rhamnus cathartica L. Oriental Journal of Chemistry 31, 1133–1140.
Harris, JC, Plummer, S and Lloyd, D (2001) Antigiardial drugs. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 57, 614–619.
Hashemi, SA, Abediankenari, S, Ghasemi, M, Azadbakht, M, Yousefzadeh, Y and Dehpour, AA (2011) The Effect of Fig Tree Latex (Ficus carica) on Stomach Cancer Line. Iran Red Crescent Med J 13, 272–275.
Jahangiri, A and Barghi, L (2018) Polymeric nanoparticles: review of synthesis methods and applications in drug delivery. 1, 38–47.
Kean, T and Thanou, M (2010) Biodegradation, biodistribution and toxicity of chitosan. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 62, 3–11.
Kim, S.-K. Marine Nutraceuticals: Prospects and Perspectives, 1st Edn. by Kim, Se-Kwon (Editor). US: CRC Press, 2013 – .
Koehn, FE and Carter, GT (2005) The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov 4, 206–220.
Kosalec, I, Kremer, D, Locatelli, M, Epifano, F, Genovese, S, Carlucci, G, Randi, M and ZovkoKoncic, M (2013) Anthraquinone profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of Rhamnus alaternus, R. fallax, R.intermedia and R. pumila. Food Chemistry 136, 335–341.
Kucharska, M, Ciechańska, D and Niekraszewicz, A (2010) Potential use of chitosan – based material in medicine. Progress on Chemistry and Application of Chitin and its Derivatives 15, 58–90.
Lee, YJ, Han, DG, Ryu, JH, Chae, JB, Chae, JS, Yu, DH, Park, J, Park, BK, Kim, HC and Choi, KS (2018) Identification of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis in Korean native calves with normal feces. Parasitology Research 117, 1969–1973.
Li, L, Song, X, Yin, Z, Jia, R, Li, Z, Zhou, X, Zou, Y, Li, L, Yin, L, Yue, G, Ye, G, Lv, C, Shi, W and Fu, Y (2016) The antibacterial activity and action mechanism of emodin from Polygonum cuspidatum against Haemophilus parasuis in vitro. Microbiological Research 186–187, 139–145.
Machado, M, Augusto, M, Salgueiro, LD, Cavaleiro, C, José, BA and Do Céu Sousa, CM (2010) Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure. Parasitology Research 106, 1205–1215.
Méabed, EMH, Abou-Sreea, AIB and Roby, MHH (2018) Chemical analysis and giardicidal effectiveness of the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus stapf. Parasitology Research 117, 1745–1755.
Naghdi, M, Zamani, A and Karimi, K (2014) A sulfuric-lactic acid process for efficient purification of fungal chitosan with intact molecular weight. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 63, 158–162.
Ordóñez-Mena, JM, McCarthy, ND and Fanshawe, TR (2017) Comparative efficacy of drugs for treating giardiasis: a systematic update of the literature and network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 27, 596–606.
Pandeti, S, Gunjan, S, Paidipelli, S, Tripathi, R and Tadigoppula, N (2014) Anti-malarial activity of New emodin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain. Natural Products Chemistry and Research 2, 150.
Paresh, N, Patel, L, Patel, J and Patel, JK (2011) Development and testing of novel temoxifen citrate loaded chitosan nanoparticles using ionic gelation method. Der Pharmacia Sinica 2, 17–25.
Pilon, L, Spricigo, PC, Miranda, M, Moura, MR, Assis, OBG, Mattoso, LHC and Ferreira, MD (2015) Chitosan nanoparticle coatings reduce microbial growth on fresh-cut apples while not affecting quality attributes. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 50, 440–448.
Qadir, MA, Shahzadi, SK, Bashir, A, Munir, A and Shahzad, S (2017) Evaluation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some common herbs. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 1–6.
Rahimi Esboei, B, Ebrahimzadeh, MA, Gholami, SH and Fallah Omrani, V (2013 a) Anti-giardial activity of Sambucus ebulus. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 17, 2047–2050.
Rahimi-Esboei, B, Fakhar, M, Chabra, A and Hosseini, M (2013 b) In vitro treatments of Echinococcus granulosus with fungal chitosan, as a novel biomolecule. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 3, 930–935.
Sembiring, EN, Elya, B and Sauriasari, RJPJ (2018) Phytochemical screening, total flavonoid and total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of different parts of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) roxb. Pharmacognosy Journal 10, 123–127.
Srinivas, G, Babykutty, S, Sathiadevan, PP and Srinivas, P (2007) Molecular mechanism of emodin action: transition from laxative ingredient to an antitumor agent. Medicinal Research Reviews 27, 591–608.
Sui, B, Fang, L, Chi, Y and Zhang, C (2010) Nano-Reconfigurable cells with hybrid circuits of single-electron transistors and MOSFETs. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 57, 2251–2257.
Sultana, B, Anwar, F and Przybylski, R (2007) Antioxidant activity of phenolic components present in barks of Azadirachta indica, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia nilotica, and Eugenia jambolana Lam. Trees Food Chemistry 104, 1106–1114.
Tayel, AA, Moussa, S, el-Tras, WF, Knittel, D and Opwis, K (2010) Anticandidal action of fungal chitosan against Candida albicans. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 247, 454–457.
Tůmová, P, Mazánek, L, Lecová, L, Dluhošová, J, Typovská, H, Kotrašová, V, Ticháčková, V and Nohýnková, E (2018) A natural zoonotic giardiasis: infection of a child via giardia cysts in pet chinchilla droppings. Parasitology International 67, 759–762.
Venkatachalam, M, Girard-Valenciennes, E, Caro, Y, Dufossé, L and Fouillaud, M (2016) Anthraquinones and derivatives from marine-derived fungi: structural diversity and selected biological activities. Marine Drugs 14, 64.
Wardani, G, Mahmiah, M and Sudjarwo, SA (2018) In vitro antibacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pharmacognosy Journal 10, 162–166.
Wim, H De Jong and Borm, PJA (2008) Drug delivery and nanoparticles: applications and hazards. International Journal of Nanomedicine 3, 133–149.
Yarahmadi, M, Fakhar, M, Ebrahimzadeh, MA, Chabra, A and Rahimi-Esboei, B (2016) The anti-giardial effectiveness of fungal and commercial chitosan against Giardia intestinalis cysts in vitro. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 40, 75–80.
Zhao, Z, Haiju, d, Wang, R, Zhao, W and Chen, G (2014) Genotyping and subtyping Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis carried by flies on dairy farms in Henan, China. Parasites & Vectors 7, 190.