Skip to main content Accessibility help

Dipstick dot ELISA for the detection of Taenia coproantigens in humans

  • J. C. Allan (a1), F. Mencos (a2), J. Garcia-Noval (a2), E. Sarti (a3), A. Flisser (a4), Y. Wang (a5), D. Liu (a6) and P. S. Craig (a1)...


A dipstick dot ELISA for detection of Taenia-specific coproantigens was developed. The test was based on a sandwich ELISA using antibodies raised against adult Taenia solium. Antibodies were adsorbed to nitrocellulose paper previously adhered to acetate plastic to form dipsticks. Once blocked with 5% skimmed milk and dried the antibody-coated dipsticks were stable for several weeks at room temperature. Both micro and dot ELISA formats were genus specific although the dot ELISA was less sensitive than the micro ELISA based on the same antiserum. During field studies, in which the majority of samples were tested in rural villages soon after collection, 3728 samples were tested. All samples were also examined by microscopy using formol ether concentration and individuals questioned to determine whether they were aware of being infected. After the initial diagnostic work individuals were treated with taeniacidal drugs for worm recovery. Use of the coproantigen test significantly increased the number of cases diagnosed. Of the 41 cases diagnosed by the three diagnostic techniques combined 31 were detected by the dipstick assay making it the most sensitive technique employed. The specificity of the dipstick assay was 99·9% with a positive predictive value of 88·%. The combined diagnostic approach did not, however, diagnose all cases. The coproantigen test was fast and easy to use. Further improvements may make the dipstick test suitable for wide-scale use in field studies and diagnostic laboratories.



Hide All
Allan, J. C. & Craig, P. S. (1989). Coproantigens in gut tapeworm infections; Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. Parasitology Research 76, 6873.
Allan, J. C., Avila, G., Garcia Novai, J., Flisser, A. & Craig, P. S. (1990). Immunodiagnosis of taeniasis by coproantigen detection. Parasitology 101, 473–7.
Allan, J. C., Garcia Dominguez, C., Craig, P. S., Rogan, M. T., Lowe, B. S. & Flisser, A. (1991). Sexual development of Taenia solium in hamsters. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 85, 573–6.
Allan, J. C., Craig, P. S., Garcia Noval, J., Mencos, F., Liu, D., Wang, Y., Wen, H., Zhou, P., Stringer, R., Rogan, M. & Zeyhle, E. (1992). Coproantigen detection for the immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and taeniasis in dogs and humans. Parasitology 104, 347–55.
Bursey, C. C., McKenzie, J. A. & Burt, M. D. B. (1980). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in differentiation of Taenia (Cestoda) by total protein. International Journal for Parasitology 10, 167–74.
Cruz, M., Davis, A., Dixon, H., Pawlowski, Z. S. & Proano, j. (1989). Operational studies on the control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Ecuador. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 67, 401–7.
Deplazes, P., Gottstein, B., Stingelin, Y. & Eckert, J. (1990). Detection of Taenia hydatigena coproantigens by ELISA in dogs. Veterinary Parasitology 36, 91103.
Deplazes, P., Eckert, J., Pawlowski, Z. S., Machowska, L. & Gottstein, B. (1991). An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for diagnostic detection of Taenia saginata copro-antigens in humans. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 85, 391–;6.
Diaz-Camacho, S., Candil Ruiz, A., Beltran, M. U. & Willms, K. (1990). Serology as an indicator of Taenia solium tapeworm infections in a rural community in Mexico. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84, 563–6.
Diaz-Camacho, S., Candil Ruiz, A., Suate Peraza, V., Zazueta Ramos, M. L., Felix Medina, M., Lozano, R. & Willms, K. (1991). Epidemiologic study and control of Taenia solium infections with praziquantel in a rural village of Mexico. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 45, 522–31.
Flentje, V. B. & Padelt, H. (1981). Wert einer serologischen Diagnostik der Taenia saginata Infestation des Menschen. Angewandte Parasitologie 22, 65–8.
Flisser, A., Reid, A., Garcia Zepeda, E. & McManus, D. P. (1988). Specific detection of Taenia saginata eggs by DNA hybridization. Lancet ii, 1429–30.
Gemmell, M., Matyas, Z., Pawlowski, Z. & Soulsby, E. J. L. (1983). Guidelines for Surveillance Prevention and Control of Taeniasis/Cysticercosis. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Gottstein, B., Deplazes, P., Tanner, I. & Skaggs, J. S. (1991). Diagnostic identification of Taenia saginata with the polymerase chain reaction. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 85, 248–9.
Hall, A., Latham, M. C., Crompton, D. W. T. & Stephenson, L. S. (1981). Taenia saginata (Cestoda) in Western Kenya: the reliability of faecal examinations in diagnosis. Parasitology 83, 91101.
Harrison, L. J. S., Delgado, J. & Parkhouse, R. M. E. (1990). Differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium with DNA probes. Parasitology 100, 459–61.
Le Riche, P. D. & Sewell, M. M. H. (1978). Differentiation of taeniid cestodes by enzyme electophoresis. International Journal for Parasitology 8, 479–83.
Machnicka-Roguska, B. & Zwierz, C. (1970). Intradermal test with antigenic fractions in Taenia saginata infection. Acta Parasitologia Polonica 18, 293–9.
Maass, M., Delgado, F. & Knobloch, J. (1991). Detection of Taenia solium antigens in merthiolate-formalin preserved stool samples. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 42, 112–14.
Monisov, A. A. (1966). On the problem of perfecting the method of questioning the population on Taeniarynchus infection. Medinskaya Parazitologia Parazitarnye Bolezni 35, 492–4.
Pappas, M. G. (1988). Recent applications of the Dot-ELISA in immunoparasitology. Veterinary Parasitology 29, 105–29.
Ramsdell, S. G. (1927). A note on the skin reaction in Taenia infestation. Journal of Parasitology 14, 102–5.
Ritchie, L. S. (1948). An ether sedimentation technique for routine stool examinations. Bulletin of the United States Army Medical Department 8, 326.
Sarti, E. J., Schantz, P. M., Lara-Aguilera, R., Gomez Dandoy, H. & Flisser, A. (1988). Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in a Mexican village. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 39, 194–8.
Schantz, P. M. & Sarti, E. (1989). Diagnostic methods and epidemilogical surveillance of Taenia solium infection. Acta Leidensia 57, 153–63.
Vinayak, V. K., Dutt, P. & Puri, M. (1991). An immunoenzymatic dot ELISA for the detection of Giardia lamblia antigen in stool eluates of clinical cases of giardiasis. Journal of Immunological Methods 137, 245–51.
Viscidi, R., Laughon, B. E., Hanvanich, M., Bartlett, J. G. & Yolken, R. H. (1984). Improved enzyme immunoassays for the detection of antigens in fecal specimens. Investigation and correction of interfering factors. Journal of Immunological Methods 67, 129–43.
Wilson, M. B. & Nakane, P. K. (1978). Recent development in the periodate method of conjugating horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) to antibodies. In Immunofluorescence and Related Staining Techniques (ed. Knapp, W., Holubar, K. & Wicks, G.) pp. 215Amsterdam: Elsevier.


Dipstick dot ELISA for the detection of Taenia coproantigens in humans

  • J. C. Allan (a1), F. Mencos (a2), J. Garcia-Noval (a2), E. Sarti (a3), A. Flisser (a4), Y. Wang (a5), D. Liu (a6) and P. S. Craig (a1)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed