Skip to main content Accessibility help

Differential expression of AP-1 transcription factor genes c-fos and c-jun in the helminth parasites Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium



Homologues of c-fos and c-jun from total DNA of Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium were cloned and sequenced. The amino acid alignment analysis revealed that c-fos DNAs from T. crassiceps and T. solium were highly homologous (96%), and both have high homology compared to several mammalian c-fos proteins (93% to mouse, 96% to rat and 86% to human). The c-jun protein alignment showed higher homology (T. crassiceps and T. solium have 98%), when compared with mouse, rat and human, being 92%, 98% and 93% respectively. RT–PCR amplification of the parasite's total RNA, showed that T. crassiceps expressed both AP-1 complex genes, while T. solium only expressed c-fos. Southern blot hybridization analysis confirmed the true origin of each amplified gene. AP-1 transcription gene expression is regulated by oestradiol in the same fashion as their mammalian counterparts only in T. crassiceps. To study if AP-1 genes are involved in a physiological function of the cyst, reproduction was studied in vitro. Oestradiol treatment stimulated reproduction in T. crassiceps but not in T. solium cysticerci. This is the first report of the detection and functionality of AP-1 transcription factor genes in any species of helminth parasite.


Corresponding author

Departamento de Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, UNAM, AP 70228, México DF 04510, México. Tel: +5255 5622 3854. Fax: +5255 5622 3369. E-mail:


Hide All


ALEXANDER, J. & STIMSON, W. H. (1988). Sex hormones and course of parasitic infection. Parasitology Today 4, 189193.
BARNES, P. J. & ADCOCK, I. M. (1998). Transcription factors and asthma. European Respiratory Journal 12, 221234.
BOJALIL, R., TERRAZAS, L. I., GOVEZENSKY, T., SCIUTTO, E. & LARRALDE, C. (1993). Thymus-related cellular immune mechanisms in sex associated resistance to experimental murine cysticercosis (Taenia crassiceps). Journal of Parasitology 78, 384389.
CHINENOV, Y. & KERPPOLA, T. K. (2001). Close encounters of many kinds: Fos-Jun interactions that mediate transcription regulatory specificity. Oncogene 30, 24382452.
CULBRETH, K. L., ESCH, G. W. & KUHN, R. E. (1972). Growth and development of larval Taenia crassiceps (Cestoda) II: the relationships between larval biomass and the uptake and incorporation of 14C-leucine. Experimental Parasitology 32, 272281.
FREEMAN, R. S. (1962). Studies on the biology of Taenia crassiceps (Zeder 1800) Rudolphi, 1810 (Cestoda). Canadian Journal of Zoology 40, 969990.
HUERTA, L., TERRAZAS, L. I., SCIUTTO, E., GOVEZENSKI, T. & LARRALDE, C. (1992). Immunological mediation of gonadal effects on experimental murine cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps metacestodes. Journal of Parasitology 78, 471476.
HYDER, S. M., SHIPLEY, G. L. & STANCEL, G. M. (1995). Estrogen action in target cells: selective requirements for activation of different hormone response elements. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 112, 3543.
HYDER, S. M., STANCEL, G. M., NAWAZ, Z., McDONNELL, D. P. & LOOSE-MITCHELL, D. S. (1992). Identification of an estrogen response element in the 3′-flanking region of the murine c-fos protoonco gene. Journal of Biological Chemistry 25, 1804718054.
KLEIN, S. L. (2000). The effects of hormones on sex differences in infection: from genes to behavior. Neurosciences and Biobehavioural Reviews 24, 627638.
KNOBIL, E., NEIL, J. D., EWING, L. L., GREENWALD, G. S., MARKERT, C. L. & PFA, D. W. (1988). The Physiology of Reproduction. Raven Press, New York.
KUSHNER, P. J., AGARD, D. A., GREENE, G. L., SCANLAN, T. S., SHIAU, A. K., UHT, R. M. & WEBB, P. (2000). Estrogen receptor pathways to AP-1. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 30, 311327.
LARRALDE, C., MORALES, J., TERRAZAS, I., GOVEZENSKY, T. & ROMANO, M. C. (1995). Sex hormone changes induced by the parasite lead to feminization of the male host in murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 52, 575580.
LARRALDE, C., SOTELO, J., MONTOYA, R. M., PALENCIA, G., PADILLA, A., GOVEZENSKY, T., DIAZ, M. L. & SCIUTTO, E. (1990). Immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis in cerebrospinal fluid. Antigens from murine Taenia crassiceps cysticerci effectively substitute those from porcine Taenia solium. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 114, 926928.
MAGGI, A. & PÉREZ, J. (1985). Role of female gonadal hormones in the CNS: clinical and experimental aspects. Life Sciences 37, 893897.
McLENNAN, D. A. & BROOKS, D. R. (1991). Parasites and sexual selection: a macroevolutionary perspective. Quality Reviews in Biology 66, 255286.
MORALES, J., VELASCO, T., TOVAR, V., FRAGOSO, G., FLEURY, A., BELTRAN, C., VILLALOBOS, N., ALUJA, A., RODARTE, L. F., SCIUTTO, E. & LARRALDE, C. (2002). Castration and pregnancy of rural pigs significantly increase the prevalence of naturally acquired Taenia solium cysticercosis. Veterinary Parasitology 80, 19.
MORALES-MONTOR, J., BAIG, S., HALLAL-CALLEROS, C. & DAMIAN, R. T. (2002). Taenia crassiceps: androgen reconstitution of the host leads to protection during cysticercosis. Experimental Parasitology 4, 209216.
MORALES-MONTOR, J., BAIG, S., MITCHELL, R., DEWAY, K., HALLAL-CALLEROS, C. & DAMIAN, R. T. (2001). Immunoendocrine interactions during chronic cysticercosis determine male mouse feminization: role of IL-6. Journal of Immunology 167, 45274533.
NEPHEW, K. P., WEBB, D. K., AKCALIK, C., MOULTON, B. C. & KHAN, S. A. (1993). Hormonal regulation and expression of the jun-C proto-oncogene in specific cell types of the rat uterus. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 46, 281287.
PADILLA, A., GOVEZENSKY, T., SCIUTTO, E., JIMENEZ-GARCIA, L. F., GONSEBATT, M. E., RAMIREZ, P. & LARRALDE, C. (2001). Kinetics and characterization of cellular responses in the peritoneal cavity of mice infected with Taenia crassiceps. Journal of Parasitology 87, 591599.
RANSONE, L. J. & VERMA, I. M. (1990). Nuclear proto-oncogenes fos and jun. Annual Reviews in Cell Biology 6, 539557.
SCIUTTO, E., FRAGOSO, G., FLEURY, A., LACLETTE, J. P., SOTELO, J., ALUJA, A., VARGAS, L. & LARRALDE, C. (2000). Taenia solium disease in humans and pigs: an ancient parasitosis disease rooted in developing countries and emerging as a major health problem of global dimensions. Microbes and Infection 15, 18751890.
SOTELO, J. & DEL BRUTO, O. H. (2000). Brain cysticercosis. Archives of Medical Research 31, 314.
TERRAZAS, L. I., BOJALIL, R., GOVEZENSKY, T. & LARRALDE, C. (1994). A role for 17β-estradiol in immunoendocrine regulation of cysticercosis (Taenia crassiceps). Journal of Parasitology 80, 563568.
TERRAZAS, L. I., BOJALIL, R., GOVEZENSKY, T. & LARRALDE, C. (1998). Shift from an early protective TH1 immune response to a late permissive TH2 response in murine cysticercosis (Taenia crassiceps). Journal of Parasitology 84, 7481.
TOENJES, S. A., SPOLSKY, R. J., MOONEY, K. A. & KUHN, R. E. (1999). The systemic immune response of Balb/c mice infected with larval Taenia crassiceps is a mixed Th1/Th2-type response. Parasitology 118, 623633.
TOLEDO, A., FRAGOSO, G., ROSAS, G., HERNÁNDEZ, M., GEVORKIAN, G., LÓPEZ-CASILLAS, F., HERNÁNDEZ, B., ACERO, G., HUERTA, M., LARRALDE, C. & SCIUTTO, E. (2001). Two epitopes shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium confer protection against murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis along with a prominent Th1 response. Infection and Immunity 69, 17661773.
WHITE, A. C. (1997). Neurocysticercosis: a major cause of neurological disease worldwide. Clinical Infectious Diseases 24, 101113.


Differential expression of AP-1 transcription factor genes c-fos and c-jun in the helminth parasites Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed