Skip to main content Accessibility help

Coproantigen detection for immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and taeniasis in dogs and humans

  • J. C. Allan (a1), P. S. Craig (a1), J. Garcia Noval (a2), F. Mencos (a2), D. Liu (a3), Y. Wang (a4), H. Wen (a5), P. Zhou (a5), R. Stringer (a1), M. Rogan (a1) and E. Zeyhle (a6)...


Three ELISA assays, based on hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against adult cestode somatic antigen, were applied in this study for the detection of Taenia- and Echinococcus-specific antigens in host faeces. The first assay, using an antiserum against Taenia pisiformis antigen extract, was used in a time-course of T. pisiformis experimental infection in dogs. The assay was shown to be considerably more sensitive than microscopical detection of eggs in faeces. Antigen was present in faeces before patency and antigen levels were independent of T. pisiformis egg output. The second assay, involving a test for human taeniasis based on antibodies against T. solium, was applied in two field studies carried out in China and Guatemala. The test was highly specific, no false positive reactions occurred with human faecal samples and the test was capable of diagnosing individuals who would not have been detected by coproscopy or treatment to recover the tapeworm. A third assay was designed for E. granulosus and demonstrated 87·5% sensitivity and 96·5% specificity with samples from naturally and experimentally infected dogs with Echinococcus or Taenia infections. In both the human Taenia and canine Echinococcus studies antigen could be detected in faecal samples from infected hosts stored in 5% formalin for 6 months. Further refinements to these tests for field application are discussed.



Hide All
Allan, J. C. (1990). Coproantigens in intestinal cestode infections. Ph.D. thesis, University of Liverpool.
Allan, J. C., Avila, G., Garcia Noval, J., Flisser, A. & Craig, P. S. (1990). Immunodiagnosis of taeniasis by coproantigen detection. Parasitology 101, 473–7.
Allan, J. C. & Craig, P. S. (1989). Coproantigens in gut tapeworm infections: Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. Parasitology Research 76, 6873.
Babos, S. & Nemeth, I. (1962). Az echinococcis szerodiagnosztikajanak kederesehez. Magyar Allatorovosok Lapja 17, 5860.
Craig, P. S., Macpherson, C. N. L., Watson-Jones, D. L. & Nelson, G. S. (1988). Immunodetection of Echinococcus eggs from naturally infected dogs and environmental contamination sites in settlements in Turkana, Kenya. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82, 268–74.
Deplazes, P., Eckert, J., Pawlowski, Z. S., Machowska, L. & Gottstein, B. (1991). An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for diagnostic detection of Taenia saginata copro-antigens in humans. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 85, 391–6.
Deplazes, P., Gottstein, B., Stingelin, Y. & Eckert, J. (1990). Detection of Taenia hydatigena coproantigens by ELISA in dogs. Veterinary Parasitology 36, 91103.
Eckert, L., Gemmell, M. A., Matyas, Z. & Soulsby, E. J. L. (1984). Guidelines for Surveillance Prevention and Control of Echinococcosis/Hydatidosis (2nd Edn). Geneva: World Health Organization.
Flisser, A., Reid, A., Garcia Zepeda, E. & McManus, D. P. (1988). Specific detection of Taenia saginata eggs by DNA hybridization. Lancet 2, 1429–30.
Gasser, R. B., Lightowlers, M. W., Obendorf, D. L., Jenkins, D. J. & Rickard, M. D. (1988). Evaluation of a serological test system for the diagnosis of natural Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs using E. granulosus protoscolex and oncosphere antigens. Australian Veterinary Journal 65, 369–73.
Gasser, R. B., Lightowlers, M. W. & Rickard, M. D. (1990). A recombinant antigen with potential for serodiagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs. International Journal for Parasitology 20, 943–50.
Gemmell, M. A., Lawson, J. R. & Roberts, M. G. (1987). Towards global control of cystic and alveolar hydatid diseases. Parasitology Today 3, 144–51.
Green, E. L. (1986). Immunological detection of parasite antigen in faeces. Parasitology Today 2, 198200.
Green, E. L., Miles, M. A. & Warhurst, D. C. (1985). Immunodiagnostic detection of Giardia antigen in faeces by rapid visual enzyme immunoassay. Lancet 2, 691–3.
Hanvanich, M., Viscidi, R., Laughon, B. E., Bartlet, J. G. & Yolken, R. H. (1985). Stool desorbing activity: a possible cause of false positive reactions in competitive enzyme immunoassays. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 21, 184–8.
Heath, D. D., Lawrence, S. B., Glennie, A. & Twaalfhoven, H. (1985). The use of excretory and secretory antigens of the scolex of Taenia ovis for the serodiagnosis of infection in dogs. Journal of Parasitology 7, 192–9.
Inouye, S., Matsuno, S. & Yamaguchi, H. (1984). Efficient coating of the solid phase with rotavirus antigens for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of Immunoglobulin A antibody in faeces. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 19, 259–63.
Machnicka Roguska, B. & Zwierz, C. (1970). Intradermal test with antigenic fractions in Taenia saginata infection. Acta Parasitologica Polonica 18, 293–9.
Machnicka, B. & Krawczuk, S. (1988). Hymenolepis diminuta antigen: detection in faeces of rats. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Science, Biological Science 35, 103–6.
Pawlowski, Z. & Schultz, M. G. (1972). Taeniasis and cysticercosis (Taenia saginata). Advances in Parasitology 10, 269343.
Ritchie, L. S. (1948). An ether sedimentation technique for routine stool examinations. Bulletin of the United States Army Medical Department 8, 326.
Sirisinha, S., Chawengkirttikul, R., Sermswan, R., Amornpant, S., Mongkolusk, S. & Panyim, S. (1991). Detection of Opisthorchis viverrini by monoclonal antibody-based ELISA and DNA hybridization. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 44, 140–5.
Stibbs, H. H., Sampadour, M. & Manning, J. F. (1988). Enzyme immunoassay for detection of Giardia lamblia cyst antigens in formalin fixed and unfixed human stool. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 26, 1665–9.
Teplukhin, YU. V., Karal'Nik, B. V. & Gorbunova, L. A. (1986). Erythrocytic immunoreagents for demonstrating Opisthorchis antigens and their use in immunodiagnosis. Meditsinskaya Parazitolgia i Parazitarnye Bolezni 56, 3740.
Vinayak, V. K., Dutt, P. & Puri, M. (1991). An immunoenzymatic dot ELISA for the detection of Giardia lamblia antigen in stool eluates of clinical cases of giardiasis. Journal of Immunological Methods 137, 245–51.
Viscidi, R., Laughon, B. E., Hanvanich, M., Bartlett, J. G. & Yolken, R. H. (1984). Improved enzyme immunoassays for detection of antigens in fecal specimens. Investigation and correction of interfering factors. Journal of Immunological Methods 67, 129–43.
Wachira, T. M., Macpherson, C. N. L. & Gathuma, J. M. (1990). Hydatid disease in the Turkana district of Kenya. VII. Analysis of the infection pressure between definitive and intermediate hosts of Echinococcus granulosus 1979–1988. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 84, 361–8.
Wilson, M. B. & Nakane, P. K. (1978). Recent development in the periodate method of conjugating horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) to antibodies. In Immunofluorescence and Related Staining Techniques. (ed. Knapp, W., Holubar, K. & Wicks, G.), pp. 215–24. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Youssef, F. G., Mansour, N. S. & Aziz, A. G. (1991). Early diagnosis of human fascioliasis by the detection of coproantigens using counterimmunoelectrophoresis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 85, 383–4.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed