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Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China – down but not out

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 November 2021

Catherine A. Gordon*
Affiliation:
Department of Immunology, Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia
Gail M. Williams
Affiliation:
School of Population Health, Discipline of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Darren J. Gray
Affiliation:
Department of Global Health, Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
Archie C. A. Clements
Affiliation:
Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia
Xiao-Nong Zhou
Affiliation:
National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
Yuesheng Li
Affiliation:
Department of Immunology, Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia Hunan Institute of Schistosomiasis Control, Yueyang, Hunan, People's Republic of China
Jürg Utzinger
Affiliation:
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Johanna Kurscheid
Affiliation:
Department of Global Health, Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Simon Forsyth
Affiliation:
School of Population Health, Discipline of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Kefyalew Addis Alene
Affiliation:
Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia
Jie Zhou
Affiliation:
Hunan Institute of Schistosomiasis Control, Yueyang, Hunan, People's Republic of China
Zhaojun Li
Affiliation:
Jiangxi Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China
Guangpin Li
Affiliation:
Hunan Institute of Schistosomiasis Control, Yueyang, Hunan, People's Republic of China
Dandan Lin
Affiliation:
Jiangxi Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China
Zhihong Lou
Affiliation:
Hunan Institute of Schistosomiasis Control, Yueyang, Hunan, People's Republic of China
Shengming Li
Affiliation:
Hunan Institute of Schistosomiasis Control, Yueyang, Hunan, People's Republic of China
Jun Ge
Affiliation:
Jiangxi Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China
Jing Xu
Affiliation:
National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
Xinling Yu
Affiliation:
Hunan Institute of Schistosomiasis Control, Yueyang, Hunan, People's Republic of China
Fei Hu
Affiliation:
Jiangxi Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China
Shuying Xie
Affiliation:
Jiangxi Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China
Jie Chen
Affiliation:
Chinese National Human Genome Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
Tao Shi
Affiliation:
Chinese National Human Genome Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
Chong Li
Affiliation:
Chinese National Human Genome Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
Huajun Zheng
Affiliation:
Chinese National Human Genome Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
Donald P. McManus*
Affiliation:
Department of Immunology, Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia
*
Author for correspondence: Catherine A. Gordon, Donald P. McManus, E-mail: Catherine.Gordon@qimrberghofer.edu.au, Don.McManus@qimrberghofer.edu.au
Author for correspondence: Catherine A. Gordon, Donald P. McManus, E-mail: Catherine.Gordon@qimrberghofer.edu.au, Don.McManus@qimrberghofer.edu.au

Abstract

Schistosomiasis has been subjected to extensive control efforts in the People's Republic of China (China) which aims to eliminate the disease by 2030. We describe baseline results of a longitudinal cohort study undertaken in the Dongting and Poyang lakes areas of central China designed to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in humans, animals (goats and bovines) and Oncomelania snails utilizing molecular diagnostics procedures. Data from the Chinese National Schistosomiasis Control Programme (CNSCP) were compared with the molecular results obtained.

Sixteen villages from Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were surveyed; animals were only found in Hunan. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans was 1.8% in Jiangxi and 8.0% in Hunan determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while 18.3% of animals were positive by digital droplet PCR. The CNSCP data indicated that all villages harboured S. japonicum-infected individuals, detected serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), but very few, if any, of these were subsequently positive by Kato-Katz (KK).

Based on the outcome of the IHA and KK results, the CNSCP incorporates targeted human praziquantel chemotherapy but this approach can miss some infections as evidenced by the results reported here. Sensitive molecular diagnostics can play a key role in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China and inform control measures allowing for a more systematic approach to treatment.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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