Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Taxonomic and evolutionary pattern revisions resulting from geometric morphometric analysis of Pennsylvanian Neognathodus conodonts, Illinois Basin

  • Alexander N. Zimmerman (a1), Claudia C. Johnson (a1) and P. David Polly (a1)

Abstract

Conodont fossils are highly valuable for Paleozoic biostratigraphy and for interpreting evolutionary change, but identifying and describing conodont morphologies, and characterizing gradual shape variation remain challenging. We used geometric morphometric (GM) analysis to conduct the first landmark-based morphometric analysis of the biostratigraphically useful conodont genus Neognathodus. Our objective is to assess whether previously defined morphotype groups are reliably distinct from one another. As such, we reevaluate patterns of morphologic change in Neognathodus P1elements, perform maximum-likelihood tests of evolutionary modes, and construct novel, GM-based biozonations through a Desmoinesian (Middle Pennsylvanian) section in the Illinois Basin. Our GM results record the entire spectrum of shape variability among Neognathodus morphotypes, thus alleviating the problem of documenting and classifying gradual morphologic transitions between morphotypes. Statistically distinct GM groups support previously established classifications of N. bassleri, N. bothrops, and N. roundyi. Statistically indistinct pairs of GM groups do not support literature designations of N. medadultimus and N. medexultimus, and N. dilatus and N. metanodosus, and we synonymize each pair. Maximum-likelihood tests of evolutionary modes provide the first statistical assessment of Neognathodus evolutionary models in the Desmoinesian. The most likely evolutionary models are an unbiased random walk or a general random walk. We name four distinct biozones through the Desmoinesian using GM results, and these align with previous biozonation structure based on the Neognathodus Index (NI), illustrating that Neognathodus-based biostratigraphic correlations would not change between GM or NI methods. The structural similarity between both biozonations showcases that determining GM-based biozones is not redundant, as this comparison validates using landmark-based GM work to construct viable biozonations for subsequent stratigraphic correlations. Although this study is limited to the Illinois Basin, our quantitative methodology can be applied broadly to test taxonomic designations of additional genera, interpret statistically robust evolutionary patterns, and construct valid biozones for this significant chordate group.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Akaike, H. 1974. A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 19:716723.
Aldridge, R. J., and Purnell, M. A.. 1996. The conodont controversies. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11:4634668.
Allmon, W. D. 2013. Species, speciation and palaeontology up to the Modern Synthesis: persistent themes and unanswered questions. Palaeontology 56:11991223.
Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P., and Thompson, W. L.. 2000. Null hypothesis testing: problems, prevalence, and an alternative. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:912923.
Barrick, J. E., and Boardman, D. R. II. 1989. Stratigraphic distribution of morphotypes of Idiognathodus and Streptognathodus in Missourian-lower Virgilian strata, north-central Texas. Pp. 167–188 in D. R. Boardman II, J. E. Barrick, J. M. Cocke, and M. K. Nestall, eds. Middle and Late Pennsylvanian chronostratigraphic boundaries in north-central Texas: glacial-eustatic events, biostratigraphy, and paleoecology, a guidebook with contributed papers, Part II. Contributed papers. Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Tex.
Barrick, J. E., Boardman, D. R. II, and Heckel, P. H.. 1996. Biostratigraphy across the Desmoinesian–Missourian boundary in North America Midcontinent, USA: -mplications for defining the Middle–Upper Pennsylvanian boundary. IUGS Subcommision on Carboniferous Stratigraphy 34:161175.
Barrick, J. E., Lambert, L. L., Heckel, P. H., and Boardman, D. R. II. 2004. Pennsylvanian conodont zonation for Midcontinent North America. Revista Espanola de Micropaleontologia 36:231250.
Boardman, D. R. II, Heckel, P. H., Barrick, J. E., Nestall, M. K., and Peppers, R. A.. 1990. Middle–Upper Pennsylvanian chronostratigraphic boundary in the Midcontinent region of North America. Pp. 319337 in P. L. Brenckle and W. L. Manger, eds. Intercontinental correlation and division of the Carboniferous System. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt.
Bookstein, F. L. 1991. Morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Bookstein, F. L. 2013. Random walk as a null model for high-dimensional morphometrics of fossil series: geometrical considerations. Paleobiology 39:5274.
Brown, L. M., and Rexroad, C. B.. 2009. Conodont paleontology of the West Franklin Limestone Member of the Shelburn Formation (Pennsylvanian) in the southeastern part of the Illinois Basin. Indiana Geological Survey Special Report 68:34.
Brown, L. M., Rexroad, C. B., Eggert, D. L., and Horowitz, A. S.. 1991. Conodont paleontology of the Providence Limestone Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian, Desmoinesian) in the southern part of the Illinois Basin. Journal of Paleontology 65:945957.
Brown, L. M., Rexroad, C. B., and Zimmerman, A. N.. 2013. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Porvenir Formation (Pennsylvanian, Desmoinesian) in the southeastern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico. Mountain Geologist 50:99119.
Brown, L. M., Rexroad, C. B., and Zimmerman, A. N.. 2016. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Alum Cave Limestone Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian, Desmoinesian), southwestern Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey Occasional Paper 72:25.
Cecil, C. B. 1990. Paleoclimate controls on stratigraphic repetition of chemical and siliclastic rocks. Geology 18:533536.
Cohen, K. M., Finney, S. C., Gibbard, P. L., and Fan, J. X.. 2013. The ICS international chronostratigraphic chart. International Commission on Stratigraphy Episodes 36:199204.
Donoghue, P. C., Purnell, M. A., and Aldridge, R. J.. 1998. Conodont anatomy, chordate phylogeny and vertebrate classification. Lethaia 31:211219.
Donoghue, P. C., Sansom, I. J., and Downs, J. P.. 2006. Early evolution of vertebrate skeletal tissues and cellular interactions, and the canalizationof skeletal development. Journal of Experimental Zoology and Molecular Developmental Evolution 306:117.
Falcon-Lang, H. J., and DiMichele, W. A.. 2010. What happened to the coal forests during the Pennsylvanian glacial phases? Palaios 25:611617.
Falcon-Lang, H. J., Heckel, P. H., DiMichele, W. A., Blake, B. M. J., Easterday, C. R., Eble, C. F., Elrick, S., Gastaldo, R. A., Greb, S. F., Martino, R. L., Nelson, W. J., Pfefferkorn, H. W., Phillips, T. L., and Rosscoe, S. J.. 2011. No major stratigraphic gap exists near the middle–upper Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian–Missourian) boundary in North America. Palaios 26:125139.
Ferm, J. C., Horne, J. C., Swinchatt, J. P., and Whaley, P. W.. 1971. Carboniferous depositional environments in northeastern Kentucky. Geological Society of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky.
George, T. N. 1956. Biospecies, chronospecies, and morphospecies. Pp. 1731 in P. C. Sylvester-Bradley, ed. The species concept in paleontology. Systematics Association, London.
Gingerich, P. D. 1985. Species in the fossil record: concepts, trends, and transitions. Paleobiology 11:2741.
Girard, C., and Renaud, S.. 2011. The species concept in a long-extinct fossil group, the conodonts. Comptes Rendus Palevol 10:107115.
Girard, C., Renaud, S., and Korn, D.. 2004a. Step-wise morphological trends in fluctuating environments: evidence in the Late Devonian conodont genus Palmatolepis . Geobios 37:404415.
Girard, C., Renaud, S., and Serayet, A.. 2004b. Morphological variation of Palmatolepis Devonian conodont: species versus genera. Comptes Rendus Palevol 3:18.
Girard, C., Renaud, S., and Feist, R.. 2007. Morphometrics of the Late Devonian conodont genus Palmatolepis: phylogenetic, geographical and ecological contributions of a generic approach. Journal of Micropalaeontology 26:6172.
Gray, H. H., Ault, C. H., Keller, S. J., and Harper, D.. 2010. Bedrock geology of Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Ind.
Grayson, R. C. Jr., Trice, E. L. III, and Westergaard, E. H.. 1985. Significance of some middle Atokan to early Missourian conodont faunas from the Llano Uplift and Colorado River Valley, Texas. Southwest Section American Association of Petroleum Geologists Transactions, pp. 117131.
Gunnell, F. H. 1931. Conodonts from the Fort Scott limestone of Missouri. Journal of Paleontology 5:244252.
Hammer, O., and Harper, D. A.. 2008. Palaeontological data analysis. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
Harris, R. W., and Hollingsworth, R. V.. 1933. New Pennsylvanian conodonts from Oklahoma. American Journal of Science 25:193204.
Heckel, P. H. 1991. Lost Branch Formation and revision of upper Desmoinesian stratigraphy along Midcontinent outcrop belt. Kansas Geological Survey Geology Series 4:67.
Hunt, G. 2006. Fitting and comparing models of phyletic evolution: random walks and beyond. Paleobiology 32:578601.
Jacobson, R. J. 2000. Pennsylvanian rocks in Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, Ill.
Joachimski, M. M., von Bitter, P. H., and Buggisch, W.. 2006. Constraints on Pennsylvanian glacioeustatic sea-level changes using oxygen isotopes of conodont apatite. Geology 34:277280.
Jones, D. 2009. Directional evolution in the conodont Pterospathodus. Paleobiology 35:413431.
Jones, D., and Purnell, M. A.. 2007. A new semi-automatic morphometric protocol for conodonts and a preliminary taxonomic application. Pp. 239259 in N. MacLeod, ed. Automated taxon identifications in systematics. CRC Press (for Systematics Association), London.
Klapper, G., and Foster, C. T.. 1986. Quantification of outlines in Frasnian (Upper Devonian) platform conodonts. Canadian Journal of Earth Science 23:12141222.
Klapper, G., and Foster, C. T.. 1993. Shape analysis of Frasnian species of the Devonian condont genus Palmatolepis . Journal of Paleontology Memoir 32:135.
Lambert, L. L. 1992. Atokan and basal Desmoinesian conodonts from central Iowa, reference area for the Desmoinesian Stage. Oklahoma Geological Survey Circular 94:111123.
Mayr, E. 1957. Species concepts and definitions. Pp. 122 in E. Mayr, ed. The species problem. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.
Mayr, E. 1996. What is a species, and what is not? Philosophy of Science 63:262277.
McKinney, M. L. 1990. Classifying and analyzing evolutionary trends. Pp. 2858 in K. J. McNamara, ed. Evolutionary trends. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz.
Merrill, G. K. 1972. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and biostratigraphy of Neognathodus in Appalachian Pennsylvanian rocks. Journal of Paleontology 46:817829.
Merrill, G. K. 1975a. Pennsylvanian conodont biostratigraphy and paleoecology of northwestern Illinois. Microform Publication 3:100130.
Merrill, G. K. 1975b. Pennsylvanian conodonts of northwestern Illinois—summary and new systematics. Geology 3:721722.
Merrill, G. K. 1999. Neognathodus and the species concept in paleontology. Pp. 465473 in E. Serpagli and C. Corradini, eds. Studies on conodonts. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 37:465473.
Merrill, G. K., and Grayson, R. C. Jr. 1989. Conodont paleoecology of the type East Mountain Shale, north-central Texas. Pp. 147–154 in D. R. Boardman II, J. E. Barrick, J. M. Cocke, and M. K. Nestall, eds. Middle and Late Pennsylvanian chronostratigraphic boundaries in north-central Texas: glacial-eustatic events, biostratigraphy, and paleoecology, a guidebook with contributed papers, Part II. Contributed papers. Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Tex.
Murphy, M. A., and Cebecioglu, M. K.. 1987. Morphometric study of the genus Ancyrodelloides (Lower Devonian, Conodonts), central Nevada. Journal of Paleontology 61:583594.
Noger, M. C., McDowell, R. C., Grabowski, G. J., and Moore, S. L.. 1988. Geologic map of Kentucky. Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, Ky.
Novack-Gottshall, P. M. 2008. Ecosystem-wide body-size trends in Cambrian–Devonian marine invertebrate lineages. Paleobiology 34:210228.
Pander, C. H. 1865. Monographic der fossilen Fische des Silurischen Systems der Russisch-Baltischen Gouvernments. Saint Peterburg Académie des Sciences 1:91.
Piras, P., Sansalone, G., Marcolini, F., Tuveri, C., Arca, M., and Kotsakis, T.. 2012. Evolutionary trends and stasis in molar morphology of Rhagapodemus–Rhagamys lineage in the Pleistocene of Sardinia. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 118:535543.
Polly, P. D. 2016. Geometric morphometrics for Mathematica® package, Version 12.0. Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind.
Polly, P. D. 2018. Phylogenetics for Mathematica® package, Version 5.0. Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind.
Poulsen, C. J., Pollard, D., Montanez, I. P., and Rowley, D.. 2007. Late Paleozoic tropical climate response to Gondwanan deglaciation. Geology 35:771774.
Purnell, M. A. 1995. Microwear on conodont elements and macrophagy in the first vertebrates. Nature 374:788800.
Renaud, S., and Girard, C.. 1999. Strategies of survival during extreme environmental perturbations: evolution of conodonts in response to the Kellwasser crisis (Upper Devonian). Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 146:1932.
Rexroad, C. B., Brown, L. M., and Weinrick, S. L.. 1996. Idiognathodus and the conodont biostratigraphy of the Holland Limestone Member, Staunton Formation (Pennsylvanian, Desmoinesian) from the Illinois Basin, U.S.A. Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences: Sixth European Conodont Symposium (ECOS VI). Warsaw, Poland.
Rexroad, C. B., Brown, L. M., Devera, J., and Suman, R.. 1998. Conodont biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Perth Limestone Member, Staunton Formation (Pennsylvanian) of the Illinois Basin, USA. Palaeontologia Polonica 58:247259.
Rexroad, C. B., Wade, J. A., Merrill, G. K., Brown, L. M., and Pagett, P.. 2001. Conodont biostratigraphy and depositional environments of the Mecca Quarry Shale Member and the Velpen Limestone Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian, Desmoinesian) in the eastern part of the Illinois Basin, USA. Indiana Geological Survey Special Report 63:19.
Rohlf, F. J. 2016a. tpsDig, Version 2.22. Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, N.Y.
Rohlf, F. J. 2016b. tpsUtil, Version 1.67. Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, N.Y.
Rohlf, F. J., and Slice, D.. 1990. Extensions of the Procrustes method for the optimal superimposition of landmarks. Systematic Biology 39:4059.
Roopnarine, P. D., Murphy, M. A., and Buening, N.. 2004. Microevolutionary dynamics of the Early Devonian conodont Wurmiella from the Great Basin of Nevada. Palaeontologia Electronica 8.2.31A.
Shaver, R. H., Ault, C. H., Burger, A. M., Carr, D. D., Droste, J. B., Eggert, D. L., Gray, H. H., Harper, D., Hasenmueller, N. R., Hasenmueller, W. A., Horowitz, A. S., Hutchison, H. C., Keith, B. D., Keller, S. J., Patton, J. B., Rexroad, C. B., and Weir, C. E.. 1986. Compendium of Paleozoic Rock-Unit Stratigraphy in Indiana—A Revision. Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Ind.
Sloan, T. R. 2003. Results of a new outline-based method for the differentiation of conodont taxa. Pp. 389404 in R. Mawson and J. A. Taylor, eds. Second Australian Conodont Symposium (AUSCOS II). Courier Forschunginstitut Senckenberg, Orange, Australia.
Stauffer, C. R., and Plummer, H. J.. 1932. Texas Pennsylvanian conodonts and their stratigraphic relations. University of Texas Bulletin 3201:1350.
Sweet, W. C. 1988. The Conodonta: morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology and evolutionary history of a long-extinct animal phylum. Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics 10:1211.
Sweet, W. C., and Donoghue, P. C.. 2001. Conodonts: past present, future. Journal of Paleontology 75:11741184.
Swezey, C. S. 2009. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum systems of the Illinois basin, U.S.A. USGS Scientific Investigations Map 3068. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colo.
Tabor, N. J., and Poulsen, C. J.. 2008. Palaeoclimate across the Late Pennsylvanian–Early Permian tropical palaeolatitudes: a review of climate indicators, their distribution, and relation to palaeophysiographic climate factors. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 268:293310.
Trask, C. B., and Palmer, J. E.. 1986. Structural and depositional history of the Pennsylvanian System in the Illinois Basin. Pp. 63–78 in P. C. Lyons and C. L. Rice, eds. Paleoenvironmental and tectonic controls in coal-forming basins in the United States. Geological Society of America Special Paper 210.
Tri-State Committee on Correlation of the Pennsylvanian System Rock Units in the Illinois Basin. 2001. Toward a more uniform stratigraphic nomenclature for rock units (formations and groups) of the Pennsylvanian System in the Illinois Basin. Illinois Basin Consortium Illinois Basin Study 5. Illinois State Geological Survey, Indiana Geological Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey.
Van Bocxlaer, B., and Hunt, G.. 2013. Morphological stasis in an ongoing gastropod radiation from Lake Malawi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 110:1389213897.
Veevers, J. J., and Powell, C. M.. 1987. Late Paleozoic glacial episodes in Gondwanaland reflected in transgressive–regressive depositional sequences in Eurameric. Geological Society of America Bulletin 98:475487.
Vogt, L., Bartolomaeus, T., and Giribet, G.. 2009. The linguistic problem of morphology: structure versus homology and the standardization of morphological data. Cladistics 26:301325.
Wolfram, . 2016. Mathematica®, Version 10.3. Wolfram Research, Champaign, Ill.
Zelditch, M. L., Swiderski, D. L., Sheets, H. D., and Fink, W. L.. 2004. Geometric morphometrics for biologists: a primer. Elsevier Academic, San Diego, Calif.
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Zimmerman et al. supplementary material
Zimmerman et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (15 KB)
15 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Zimmerman et al. supplementary material
Zimmerman et al. supplementary material 2

 Unknown (10.7 MB)
10.7 MB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Zimmerman et al. supplementary material
Zimmerman et al. supplementary material 3

 Word (14 KB)
14 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Zimmerman et al. supplementary material
Zimmerman et al. supplementary material 4

 Word (16 KB)
16 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Zimmerman et al. supplementary material
Zimmerman et al. supplementary material 5

 Word (14 KB)
14 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Zimmerman et al. supplementary material
Zimmerman et al. supplementary material 6

 Word (22 KB)
22 KB

Taxonomic and evolutionary pattern revisions resulting from geometric morphometric analysis of Pennsylvanian Neognathodus conodonts, Illinois Basin

  • Alexander N. Zimmerman (a1), Claudia C. Johnson (a1) and P. David Polly (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed