Alroy, J. 1998. Cope's rule and the dynamics of body mass evolution in North American fossil mammals. Science 280:731–734.
Alroy, J. 2000. Understanding the dynamics of trends within evolving lineages. Paleobiology 26:319–329.
Arnold, A. J., Kelly, D. C., and Parker, W. C. 1995. Causality and Cope's rule—evidence from the planktonic Foraminifera. Journal of Paleontology 69:203–210.
Bokma, F. 2002. A statistical test of unbiased evolution of body size in birds. Evolution 56:2499–2504.
Boyajian, G., and Lutz, T. 1992. Evolution of biological complexity and its relation to taxonomic longevity in the Ammonoidea. Geology 20:983–986.
Carlson, S. J. 1992. Evolutionary trends in the articulate brachiopod hinge mechanism. Paleobiology 18:344–366.
Carrano, M. T. 2005. The Body size evolution in the Dinosauria. In Carrano, M. T., Gaudin, T. J., Blob, R. W., and Wible, J. R., eds. Amniote paleobiology: perspectives on the evolution of mammals, birds, and reptiles. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Dommergues, J.-L., Laurin, B., and Meister, C. 1996. Evolution of ammonoid morphospace during the Early Jurassic radiation. Paleobiology 22:219–240.
Felsenstein, J. 1985. Phylogenies and the comparative method. American Naturalist 125:1–15.
Fisher, D. C. 1986. Progress in organismal design. Pp. 99–117in Raup, D. M. and Jablonski, D., eds. Patterns and processes in the history of life. Springer, Berlin.
Gould, S. J. 1988. Trends as changes in variance: a new slant on progress and directionality in evolution. Journal of Paleontology 62:319–329.
Gould, S. J. 1996. Full house: the spread of excellence from Plato to Darwin. Harmony, New York.
Jablonski, D. 1996. Body size and macroevolution. Pp. 256–289in Jablonski, D., Erwin, D. H., and Lipps, J. H., eds. Evolutionary paleobiology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Jablonski, D. 1997. Body-size evolution in Cretaceous mollusks and the status of Cope's rule. Nature 385:250–252.
Knouft, J. H., and Page, L. M. 2003. The evolution of body size in extant groups of North American freshwater fishes: speciation, size distributions, and Cope's rule. American Naturalist 161:413–421.
Maurer, B. A. 1998. The evolution of body size in birds. I. Evidence for non-random diversification. Evolutionary Ecology 12:925–934.
McShea, D. W. 1993. Evolutionary change in the morphological complexity of the mammalian vertebral column. Evolution 47:730–740.
McShea, D. W. 1994. Mechanisms of large-scale evolutionary trends. Evolution 48:1747–1763.
McShea, D. W. 1996. Metazoan complexity and evolution: is there a trend? Evolution 50:477–492.
McShea, D. W. 1998a. Possible largest-scale trends in organismal evolution: eight “live hypotheses.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29:293–318.
McShea, D. W. 1998b. Dynamics of diversification in state space. Pp. 91–108in McKinney, M. L. and Drake, J. A., eds. Biodiversity dynamics: turnover of populations, taxa, and communities. Columbia University Press, New York.
McShea, D. W. 2000. Trends, tools, and terminology. Paleobiology 26:330–333.
McShea, D. W. 2001. The minor transitions in hierarchical evolution and the question of a directional bias. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14:502–518.
Norris, R. D., and Nishi, H. 2001. Evolutionary trends in coiling of tropical Paleogene planktic foraminifera. Paleobiology 27:327–347.
Renaud, S., Michaux, J., Mein, P., Aguilar, J. P., and Auffray, J. C. 1999. Patterns of size and shape differentiation during the evolutionary radiation of the European Miocene murine rodents. Lethaia 32:61–71.
Saunders, W. B., and Work, D. M. 1996. Shell morphology and suture complexity in Upper Carboniferous ammonoids. Paleobiology 22:189–218.
Saunders, W. B., Work, D. M., and Nikolaeva, S. V. 1999. Evolution of complexity in Paleozoic ammonite sutures. Science 286:760–763.
Sidor, C. A. 2001. Simplification as a trend in synapsid cranial evolution. Evolution 55:1419–1442.
Stanley, S. M. 1973. An explanation for Cope's Rule. Evolution 27:1–26.
Trammer, J., and Kaim, A. 1997. Body size and diversity exemplified by three trilobite clades. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 42:1–12.
Verdú, M. 2004. Tempo, mode, and phylogenetic associations of embryo size evolution in angiosperms. .
Wagner, P. J. 1996. Contrasting the underlying patterns of active trends in morphologic evolution. Evolution 50:990–1007.
Wang, S. C. 2001. Quantifying passive and driven large-scale evolutionary trends. Evolution 55:849–858.