From its earliest years, the Society's journal has carried reports on the tsetse problem in Africa. Between the 1920s and 1960s, attempts to eradicate the flies from many parts of the country resulted in the slaughter of 1.3 million game animals and extensive bush clearance, which permanently destroyed wildlife habitat. By the early 1970s, the use of insecticides had largely replaced these drastic techniques, but this, in its turn, with the environmental side-effects, caused much concern amongst wildlife conservationists. The authors review the history of tsetse control and discuss the new, safer methods that have been developed, as well as others still under trial. It is clear, however, that tsetse eradication will continue to be controversial. The development of safer and environmentally acceptable techniques does not solve a more fundamental problem—the wise use of Africa's land. Clearing the land of tsetse can open the path to its ruin by unsustainable pastoral encroachment. It is of interest that in April 1985, the EEC governments forced the EEC Commission to modify its forthcoming programme of tsetse fly eradication in four countries by insisting that environmentally harmful methods using DDT should not be employed. The Commission was also forced to include a three-year project on area development planning—land-use considerations were originally not included in its proposals.