Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Physiology, regulation and multifunctional activity of the gut wall: a rationale for multicompartmental modelling

  • A. Bannink (a1), J. Dijkstra (a2), S.-J. Koopmans (a1) and Z. Mroz (a1)

Abstract

A rationale is given for a modelling approach to identify the mechanisms involved in the functioning and metabolic activity of tissues in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. Maintenance and productive functions are discussed and related to the distinct compartments of the gastrointestinal tract and the metabolic costs involved. Functions identified are: tissue turnover; tissue proliferation; ion transport; nutrient transport; secretions of digestive enzymes, mucus and immunoglobulins; production of immune cells. The major nutrients involved include glucose, amino acids and volatile fatty acids. In vivo measurements of net portal fluxes of these nutrients in pigs and ruminants are evaluated to illustrate the complexity of physiology and metabolic activity of the gastrointestinal tract. Experimental evidence indicates that high, but variable and specific, nutrient costs are involved in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Physiology, regulation and multifunctional activity of the gut wall: a rationale for multicompartmental modelling
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Physiology, regulation and multifunctional activity of the gut wall: a rationale for multicompartmental modelling
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Physiology, regulation and multifunctional activity of the gut wall: a rationale for multicompartmental modelling
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr André Bannink, fax +31 237320, email andre.bannink@wur.nl

References

Hide All
Allen, A, Flemstrom, G, Garner, A & Kivilaakso, E (1993) Gastroduodenal mucosal protection. Physiological Reviews 73, 823857
Alverdy, JC (1990) Effects of glutamine-supplemented diets on immunology of the gut. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 14, 109S113S
Ash, R & Baird, GD (1973) Activation of volatile fatty acids in bovine liver and rumen epithelium. Biochemical Journal 136, 311319
Bakker, GCM (1995) Interaction between carbohydrates and fat in pigs. Impact on energy evaluation in feeds. PhD Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Baldwin, RL (1995) Modeling Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism. London: Chapman & Hall
Baldwin, RL & Jesse, BW (1996) Propionate modulation of ruminal ketogenesis. Journal of Nutrition 122, 11491153
Bannink, A, Dijkstra, J, Kebreab, E & France, J (2006a) Advantages of a dynamical approach to rumen function to help resolve environmental issues. In Nutrient Digestion and Utilisation in Farm Animals: Modelling Approaches, pp. 281298 [Kebreab, E, Dijkstra, J, France, J, Bannink, A and Gerrits, WJJ, editors]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International
Bannink, A, Kogut, J, Dijkstra, J, France, J, Tamminga, S & Van Vuuren, AM (2000) Modelling production and portal appearance of volatile fatty acids in cows. In Modelling Nutrient Utilisation in Farm Animals, pp. 87102 [McNamara, JP, France, J and Beever, DE, editors]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International
Bannink, A, Kogut, J, Dijkstra, J, Kebreab, E, France, J, Tamminga, S & Van Vuuren, AM (2006b) Estimation of the stoichiometry of volatile fatty acid production in the rumen of lactating cows. Journal of Theoretical Biology 238, 3651
Bardocz, S, White, A, Grant, G, Walker, TJ, Brown, DS & Pusztai, A (2001) The role of polyamines in intestinal function and gut maturation. In Gut Environment of Pigs, pp. 2942 [Piva, A, Bach-Knudsen, KE and Lindberg, JE, editors]. Nottingham, UK: University Press
Bedford, MR (1996) Interaction between ingested feed and the digestive system in poultry. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 5, 8695
Bergman, EN (1990) Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species. Physiological Reviews 70, 567590
Berthiaume, R, Dubreuil, P, Stevenson, M, McBride, BW & Lapierre, H (2001) Intestinal disappearance and mesenteric and portal appearance of amino acids in dairy cows fed ruminally protected methionine. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 194203
Bertolo, RFP, Chen, CZL, Pencharz, PB & Ball, RO (1999) Small intestinal atrophy has a greater impact on nitrogen metabolism than liver bypass in piglets fed identical diets via gastric, central venous or portal venous routes. Journal of Nutrition 129, 10451052
Bertolo, RFP, Pencharz, PB & Ball, RO (2000) Organ and plasma amino acid concentrations are profoundly different in piglets fed identical diets via gastric, central venous or portal venous routes. Journal of Nutrition 130, 12611266
Biagi, G, Piva, A, Hill, T, Schneider, DK & Crenshaw, TD (2003) Low buffering capacity diets with added organic acids as a substitute for antibiotics in diets for weaned pigs. In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, pp. 217219 [Ball, RO, editor]. Banff, AB, Canada: University of Alberta
Britton, R & Krehbiel, C (1993) Nutrient metabolism by gut tissues. Journal of Dairy Science 76, 21252131
Brunsgaard, G, Eggum, BO & Sandström, B (1995) Gastrointestinal growth in rats as influenced by indigestible polysaccharides and adaptation period. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 111A, 369377
Buddington, RK (1998) The influence of dietary inputs on the neonatal gastrointestinal tract: managing the development of a complex system. Journal of Animal Feed Science 7, 155165
Bueno, J, Torres, M, Almendros, A, Carmona, R, Nuñez, MC, Rios, A & Gil, A (1994) Effect of dietary nucleotides on small intestinal repair after diarrhoea. Histological and ultrastructural changes. Gut 35, 926933
Bugaut, M (1987) Occurrence, absorption and metabolism of short chain fatty acids in the digestive tract of mammals. Review. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiololgy 86B, 439472
Burrin, DG & Reeds, PJ (1997) Alternative fuels in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology 13, 165170
Burrin, DG, Stoll, B, Jiang, RH, Chang, XY, Hartmann, B, Holst, JJ, Greeley, GH Jr & Reeds, PJ (2000) Minimal enteral nutrient requirements for intestinal growth in neonatal piglets: how much is enough? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 16031610
Bush, JA, Wu, G, Suryawan, A, Nguyen, HV & Davis, TA (2002) Somatotropin-induced amino acid conservation in pigs involves differential regulation of liver and gut urea cycle enzyme activity. Journal of Nutrition 32, 5967
Chang, EB & Rao, MC (1994) Intestinal water and electrolyte transport. Mechanisms of physiological and adaptive responses. In Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 3rd ed., pp. 20272075 [Johnson, LR, editor]. New York: Raven Press Ltd
Charlton, M, Ahlman, B & Nair, KS (2000) The effect of insulin on human small intestinal mucosal protein synthesis. Gastroenterology 118, 299306
Dawson, JM (1999) Variation in nutrient supply and effect on whole body anabolism. In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, EAAP Publication no. 96, pp. 101126 [Lobley, GE, White, A and MacRae, JC, editors]. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Pers
Deveney, CW & Way, LW (1986) Regulatory peptides of the gut. In Basic & Clinical Endocrinology, 2nd ed., pp. 501522 [Greenspan, FS and Forsham, PH, editors]. Los Altos, CA: Lange Medical Publications
Dijkstra, J, Boer, H, Van Bruchem, J, Bruining, M & Tamminga, S (1993) Absorption of volatile fatty acids from the rumen of lactating dairy cows as influenced by volatile fatty acid concentration, pH and rumen liquid volume. British Journal of Nutrition 69, 385396
Dijkstra, J, Forbes, JM & France, J (2005) Quantitative Aspects of Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism, 2nd ed. Wallingford, UK: CAB International
Dijkstra, J, Mills, JAN & France, J (2002) The role of dynamic modelling in understanding the microbial contribution to rumen function. Nutrition Research Reviews 15, 6790
Dirksen, G, Liebich, HG, Brosi, G, Hagemeister, H & Mayer, E (1984) Morphologie der pansenschleimhaut und fettsaureresorption beim Rind- bedeutende faktoren fur gesundheit und Leistung (Morphology of the rumen mucosa and fatty acid absorption in cattle–important factors for health and production). Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin 31A, 414430
Dugan, MER, Knabe, DA & Wu, G (1994) Glutamine and glucose metabolism in intraepithelial lymphocytes from pre- and postweaning pigs. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 109B, 675681
Edwards, CA, Johnson, IT & Read, NW (1988) Do viscous polysaccharides slow absorption by inhibiting diffusion or convection? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42, 307312
Ewtushik, AL & Ball, RO (1998) Performance and intestinal development of early-weaned piglets receiving diets supplemented with selected amino acids and polyamines. In 1998 Ontario Swine Research Review, pp. 3437. Guelph, Canada: Ontario Agricultural College
Fengler, AI & Marquardt, RR (1988) Water soluble pentosans from rye: II Effects on rate of dialysis and on the retention of nutrients by the chick. Cereal Chemistry 65, 298302
Fleming, SE, Zambell, KL & Fitch, MD (1997) Glucose and glutamine provide similar proportions of energy to mucosal cells of rat small intestine. American Journal of Physiology 273, G968G978
Flemström, G & Isenberg, JI (2001) Gastroduodenal mucosal alkaline secretion and mucosal protection. News in Physiological Sciences 16, 2328
Flynn, NE & Wu, G (1997) Glucocorticoids play an important role in mediating the enhanced metabolism of arginine and glutamine in enterocytes of postweaning pigs. Journal of Nutrition 127, 732737
Forstner, JF & Forstner, GG (1994) Gastrointestinal mucus. In Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 3rd ed., pp. 12551283 [Johnson, LR, Alpers, DH, Christensen, J, Jacobson, ED and Walsh, JH, editors]. New York: Raven Press
Fuller, MF & Reeds, PJ (1998) Nitrogen cycling in the gut. Annual Review of Nutrition 18, 385411
Gäbel, G, Aschenbach, JR & Müller, F (2002) Tranfer of energy substrates across the ruminal epithelium: implications and limitations. Animal Health Research Reviews 3, 1530
Galfi, P, Neogrady, S & Sakata, T (1991) Effects of volatile fatty acids on the epithelial cell proliferation of the digestive tract and its hormonal mediation. In Physiological Aspects of Digestion and Metabolism in Ruminants. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology, pp. 4959 [Tsuda, T, Sasaki, Y and Kawashima, R, editors]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
Gaskins, HR (2003) The commensal microbiota and development of mucosal defense in the mammalian intestine. In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, 1: Invited Reviews, pp. 5771 [Ball, RO, editor]. Banff, AB, Canada: University of Alberta
Gerrits, WJJ, Dijkstra, J & France, J (1997) Description of a model integrating protein and energy metabolism in preruminant calves. Journal of Nutrition 127, 12291242
Gill, M, France, J, Summers, M, McBride, BW & Milligan, LP (1989) Simulation of the energy costs associated with protein turnover and Na+, K+ transport in growing lambs. Journal of Nutrition 119, 12871299
Goddeeris, BM, Boersma, WJA, Cox, E, Van der Stede, Y, Koenen, ME, Vancaeneghem, S, Mast, J & Van den Broeck, W (2002) The porcine and avian intestinal immune system and its nutritional modulation. In Nutrition and Health of the Gastrointestinal Tract, pp. 97134 [Blok, MC, Vahl, HA, De Lange, L, Van de Braak, AE, Hemke, G and Hessing, M, editors]. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers
Gross, KL, Harmon, DL & Avery, TB (1990a) Portal-drained visceral flux of nutrients in lambs fed alfalfa or maintained by total intragastric infusion. Journal of Animal Science 68, 214221
Gross, KL, Harmon, DL, Minton, JE & Avery, TB (1990b) Effects of isoenergetic infusions of propionate and glucose on portal-drained visceral nutrient flux and concentrations of hormones in lambs maintained by total gastric infusion. Journal of Animal Science 68, 25662574
Gruys, E, Toussaint, MJM, Landman, WJM, Tivapasi, M, Chamanza, R & Van Veen, L (1998) Infection, inflammation and stress inhibit growth. Mechanisms and non-specific assessment of the processes by acute phase proteins. In Production Diseases in Farm Animals, 10th International Conference, pp. 7287 [Wensing, T, editor]. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Pers
Hall, JC, Heel, K & McCauley, R (1996) Glutamine. British Journal of Surgery 83, 305312
Harmon, DL, Gross, KL, Krehbiel, CR, Kreikemeijer, KK, Bauer, ML & Britton, RA (1991) Influence of dietary forage and energy intake on metabolism and acyl-CoA synthetase activity in bovine ruminal epithelial tissue. Journal of Animal Science 69, 41174127
Harmon, DL, Richards, CJ, Swanson, KC, Howell, JA, Matthews, JC, True, AD, Huntington, GB, Gahr, SA & Russell, RW (2001) Influence of ruminal or postruminal starch on visceral glucose metabolism in steers. In Energy Metabolism in Animals. Proceedings of the 15th Symposium of Energy Metabolism of Animals, EAAP Publication no. 103, pp. 273276 [Chwalibog, A and Jakobsen, K, editors]. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Pers
Harada, E, Niiyama, M & Syuto, B (1986) Comparison of pancreatic exocrine secretion via endogenous secretin by intestinal infusion of hydrochloric acid and monocarboxylic acid in anesthetized piglets. Japanese Journal of Physiology 36, 843856
Houle, VM, Schroeder, EA, Odle, J & Donovan, SM (1997) Small intestinal disaccharidase activity and ileal villus height are increased in piglets consuming formula containing recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I. Pediatric Research 42, 7886
Huntington, GB (1990) Energy metabolism in the digestive tract and liver of cattle: influence of physiological state and nutrition. Reproduction, Nutrition and Developement 30, 3547
Huntington, GB & Reynolds, CK (1987) Oxygen consumption and metabolite flux of bovine portal-drained viscera and liver. Journal of Nutrition 117, 11671173
Huntington, GB & Reynolds, PJ (1986) Net absorption of glucose, l-lactate, volatile fatty acids, and nitrogenous compounds by bovine given abomasal infusions of starch or glucose. Journal of Dairy Science 69, 24282436
Huntington, GB, Reynolds, PJ & Tyrrell, HF (1983) Net absorption and ruminal concentrations of metabolites in nonpregnant dry holstein cows before and after intraruminal acetic acid infusion. Journal of Dairy Science 66, 19011908
Jansman, AJM, Van Leeuwen, P, Grala, W & Haaksma, I (1997) Dynamics of amino acid absorption in pigs. In Proceedings of the VIIth International Symposium of Digestive Physiology in Pigs, EAAP Publication no. 88, pp. 316321 [LaPlace, JP, Fevrier, C and Barbeau, A, editors]. Saint-Malo, France: INRA
Jensen, BB (1998) The impact of feed additives on the microbial ecology of the gut in young pigs. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 7, 4564
Jeurissen, SHM, Lewis, F, Van der Klis, JD, Mroz, Z, Rebel, JMJ & Ter Huurne, A (2002) Parameters and techniques to determine intestinal health of poultry as constituted by immunity, integrity and functionality. Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology 3, 114
Johnson, IT & Gee, JM (1981) Effect of gel-forming gums on the intestinal unstirred water layer and sugar transport in vitro. Gut 22, 332335
Kebreab, E, France, J, Agnew, RE, Yan, T, Dhanoa, MS, Dijkstra, J, Beever, DE & Reynolds, CK (2003) Alternatives to linear analysis of energy balance data from lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 29042913
Kelly, D, Smyth, JA & McCracken, KJ (1991) Digestive development in the early-weaned pig. 2. Effect of level of food intake on digestive enzyme activity during the immediate post-weaning period. British Journal of Nutrition 65, 181188
Klasing, KC & Calvert, CC (1999) The care and feeding of an immune system: an analysis of lysine needs. In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, EAAP Publication no. 96, pp. 253264 [Lobley, GE, White, A and MacRae, JC, editors]. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Pers
Krehbiel, CR, Harmon, DL & Schnieder, JE (1992) Effect of increasing ruminal butyrate in portal and hepatic nutrient fluxes in steers. Journal of Animal Science 70, 904914
Kreikemeier, KK & Harmon, DL (1995) Abomasal glucose, maize starch and maize dextrin infusions in cattle: small intestine disappearance, net portal glucose flux and ileal oligosaccharide flow. British Journal of Nutrition 73, 763772
Kreikemeier, KK, Harmon, DL, Brandt, RT, Avery, TB & Johnson, DE (1991) Small intestine starch digestion in steers: effects of various levels of abomasal glucose, corn starch and corn dextrin infusion on small intestinal disappearance and net glucose absorption. Journal of Animal Science 69, 328338
Kristensen, NB, Danfaer, A & Agergaard, N (1996a) Diurnal patterns of ruminal concentrations and portal appearance rates of short-chain fatty acids in sheep fed a hay or a concentrate/straw diet in two meals daily. Acta Agriculturæ Scandinavica 46, 227238
Kristensen, NB, Danfær, A & Agergaard, N (1998a) Absorption and metabolism of short-chain fatty acids in ruminants. Archives of Animal Nutrition 51, 165175
Kristensen, NB, Danfær, A & Agergaard, N (1998b) Short-chain fatty acids in sheep. Portal appearance rates following high intraruminal loads. Acta Agriculturæ Scandinavica 48, 165174
Kristensen, NB, Danfær, A, Tetens, V & Agergaard, N (1996b) Portal recovery of intraruminally infused short-chain fatty acids in sheep. Acta Agriculturæ Scandinavica 46, 2638
Kristensen, NB, Pierzynowski, S & Danfaer, A (1999) Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-C4d-3-OH-butyrate by the portal-drained viscera: effects of intraruminal infusion of butyrate and propionate in sheep. South African Journal of Animal Science 29, 239240
Lamont, JT (1992) Mucus: the front line of intestinal mucosal defense. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 664, 190201
Langhout, DJ (1998) The role of the intestinal flora as affected by non-starch polysaccharides in broiler chiks. PhD Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Lenis, NP, Bikker, P, Van der Meulen, J, Van Diepen, JThM, Bakker, JGM & Jongbloed, AW (1996) Effect of dietary neutral detergent fiber on ileal digestibility and portal flux of nitrogen and amino acids and on nitrogen utilisation in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 74, 26872699
Lindsay, DB & Reynolds, CK (2005) Metabolism of the portal-drained viscera and liver. In Quantitative Aspects of Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism, 2nd ed., pp. 311344 [Dijkstra, J, Forbes, JM and France, J, editors]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International
Lobley, GE, Connell, A, Milne, E, Newman, AM & Ewing, TA (1994) Protein synthesis in splanchnic tissues of sheep offered two levels of intake. British Journal of Nutrition 71, 312
Lopez, S, Hovell, FDD, Dijkstra, J & France, J (2003) Effects of volatile fatty acids supply on their absorption and on water kinetics in the rumen of sheep sustained by intragastric infusions. Journal of Animal Science 81, 26092616
Lozano, O, Theurer, CB, Alio, A, Huber, JT, Delgado-Elorduy, A, Cuneo, P, DeYoung, D, Sadik, M & Swingle, RS (2000) Net absorption and hepatic metabolism of glucose, l-lactate, and volatile fatty acids by steers fed diets containing sorghum grain processed as dry-rolled or steam-flaked at different densities. Journal of Animal Science 78, 13641371
Lupton, JR & Kurtz, PP (1993) Relationship of colonic luminal short-chain fatty acids and pH to in vivo cell proliferation in rats. Journal of Nutrition 123, 15221530
Maas, JA, France, J, Dijkstra, J, Bannink, A & McBride, BW (1998) Modelling amino acid uptake by the lactating bovine mammary gland. Journal of Dairy Science 81, 17241734
McBride, BW & Kelly, JM (1990) Energy cost of absorption and metabolism in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract and liver: a review. Journal of Animal Science 68, 29973010
McCauley, RD, Heel, KA, Christiansen, KJ & Hall, JC (1996) The effect of minimum luminal nutrition on bacterial translocation and atrophy of the jejunum during parenteral nutrition. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 11, 6570
MacDonald, IA (1999) Aterio-venous differences to study macronutrient metabolism: introduction and overview. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58, 871875
McNurlan, MA & Garlick, PJ (1980) Contribution of rat liver and gastrointestinal tract to whole-body protein synthesis in the rat. Biochemical Journal 186, 381383
Mantle, M & Allen, A (1989) Gastrointestinal mucus. In Gastrointestinal Secretion, pp. 202229 [Davidson, JS, editor]. Cambridge, UK: Butterworth & Co (Publishers) Ltd
Maxwell, FJ & Stewart, CS (1995) Microbiology of the gut and the role of probiotics. In The Neonatal Pig. Development and Survival, pp. 155186 [Varley, MA, editor]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International
Milligan, LP & McBride, BW (1985) Energy costs of ion pumping by animal tissues. Journal of Nutrition 115, 13741382
Montalto, M, Veneto, G, Cuoco, L, Cammarota, G, Tursi, A, Papa, A, Fedeli, G & Gasbarrini, G (1997) Intestinal permeability. Recenti Progressi in Medicina 88, 140147
Mroz, Z, Koopmans, S-J, Bannink, A, Partanen, K, Krasucki, W, Øverland, M & Radcliffe, S (2005) Carboxylic acids as bioregulators and gut growth promoters in non-ruminants. In Biology of the Intestine, pp. 81133 [Mosenthin, R and Zebrowska, T, editors]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier
Mroz, Z, Øverland, M, Reese, DE, Granli, T, Kogut, J & Kjeldsen, KC (2003) Duodeno-jejunal changes in acidity and concentrations of formate, lactate and minerals as affected by potassium diformate and formic acid in diets for young pigs. In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, pp. 180182 [Ball, RO, editor]. Banff, AB, Canada: University of Alberta
Nabuurs, MJA (1991) Etiologic and pathogenic studies on postweaning diarrhoea. PhD Thesis, State University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Nabuurs, MJA (1997) Weaning piglets as a model for studying pathophysiology of diarrhoea. The Veterinary Quarterly 20, S42S45
Nieto, R & Lobley, GE (1999) Integration of protein metabolism within the whole body and between organs. In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, EAAP Publication no. 96, pp. 6999 [Lobley, GE, White, A and MacRae, JC, editors]. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Pers
Nozière, P, Martin, C, Rémond, D, Kristensen, NB, Bernard, R & Doreau, M (2000) Effect of composition of ruminally-infused short-chain fatty acids on net fluxes of nutrients across portal-drained viscera in underfed ewes. British Journal of Nutrition 83, 521531
Pabst, R & Rothkötter, H J (1998) The morphological and functional basis of the immune function of the intestinal wall: a barrier function in contrast to the absorption of nutrients. Proceedings of the Society of Nutritional Physiology 7, 1322
Parker, DS (1990) Manipulation of the functional activity of the gut by dietary and other means (antibiotics/probiotics) in ruminants. Journal of Nutrition 120, 639648
Partanen, KH & Mroz, Z (1999) Organic acids for performance enhancement in pig diets. Nutrition Research Reviews 12, 117145
Perozzi, G, Barila, D, Murgia, CH, Kelly, D, Begbie, R & King, TP (1993) Expression of differentiated functions in the developing porcine small intestine. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 4, 699705
Pluske, JR, Williams, IH & Aherne, FX (1996) Maintenance of villous height and crypt depth in piglets by providing continuous nutrition after weaning. Animal Science 62, 131144
Pratt, VC, Tappenden, KA, McBurney, MI & Field, CJ (1996) Short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition improves nonspecific immunity after intestinal resection in rats. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 20, 264271
Rechkemmer, G, Gabel, G, Dierneas, L, Sehested, J, Moller, PD & Von Engelhardt, W (1995) Transport of short-chain fatty acids in the forestomach and hindgut. In Ruminant Physiology: Digestion, Metabolism, Growth and Reproduction, pp. 93113 [Von Engelhardt, W, Leonhard-Marek, S, Breves, G and Gieseke, D, editors]. Stuttgart, Germany: Ferdinand Enke Verlag
Reeds, PJ, Burrin, DG, Stoll, B & Van Goudoever, JB (1999) Consequences and regulation of gut metabolism. In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, EAAP Publication no. 96, pp. 127153 [Lobley, GE, White, A and MacRae, JC, editors]. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Pers
Reeds, PJ, Fjeld, CR & Jahoor, F (1994) Do the differences between amino acid compositions of acute-phase and muscle proteins have a bearing on nitrogen loss in traumatic states? Journal of Nutrition 124, 906910
Rémond, D, Ortigues, I & Jouany, J-P (1995) Energy substrates for the rumen epithelium. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 54, 95105
Rérat, A (1988) Resultats experimentaux sur la physiologie digestive et l'absorption en relation avec la nutrition et le metabolisme des acides amines (Experimental results on digestive physiology and absorption in relation to nutrition and the metabolism of amino acids). In Tagingsbericht, Tagung zur Verleihung des Roche Research Prize for Animal Nutrition. Zurich, Switzerland: ETH Zurich
Rérat, A (1996) Influence of the nature of carbohydrate intake on the absorption chronology of reducing sugars and volatile fatty acids in the pig. Reproduction Nutrition and Development 36, 319
Rérat, A, Jung, J & Kandé, J (1988a) Absorption kinetics of dietary hydrolysis products in conscious pigs given diets with different amounts of fish protein. 2. Individual amino acids. British Journal of Nutrition 60, 105120
Rérat, A, Simoes Nunes, C, Mendy, F & Roger, L (1988b) Amino acid absorption and production of pancreatic hormones in non-anaesthetized pigs after duodenal infusions of a milk enzymic hydrolysate or of free amino acids. British Journal of Nutrition 60, 121136
Rérat, A, Simoes-Nunes, C, Mendy, F, Vaissade, P & Vaugelade, P (1992) Splanchnic fluxes of amino acids after duodenal infusion of carbohydrate solutions containing free amino acids or oligopeptides in non-anaesthetized pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 68, 111138
Rérat, A, Vaissade, P & Vaugelade, P (1984a) Absorption kinetics of some carbohydrates in conscious pigs. 1. Qualitative aspects. British Journal of Nutrition 51, 505515
Rérat, A, Vaissade, P & Vaugelade, P (1984b) Absorption kinetics of some carbohydrates in conscious pigs. 2. Quantitative aspects. British Journal of Nutrition 51, 517529
Rérat, A, Vaissade, P & Vaugelade, P (1991) Comparative digestion of maltitol and maltose in unanesthetized pigs. Journal of Nutrition 121, 737744
Reynolds, CK & Huntington, GB (1988a) Partition of portal-drained visceral net flux in beef steers. 1. Blood flow and net flux of oxygen, glucose and nitrogenous compounds across stomach and post-stomach tissues. British Journal of Nutrition 60, 539551
Reynolds, CK & Huntington, GB (1988b) Partition of portal-drained visceral net flux in beef steers. 2. Net flux of volatile fatty acids, d-β-hydroxybutyrate and l-latate across stomach and post-stomach tissues. British Journal of Nutrition 60, 553562
Reynolds, CK, Huntington, GB, Tyrrell, HF & Reynolds, PJ (1988) Net portal-drained visceral and hepatic metabolism of glucose, l-lactate, and nitrogenous compounds in lactating holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 71, 18031812
Reynolds, CK, Sutton, JD & Beever, DE (1997) Effects of feeding starch to dairy cows on nutrient availability and production. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Proceedings of the 30th University of Nottingham Conference for Feed Manufacturers, pp. 105134 [Garnsworthy, PC and Wiseman, J, editors]. Nottingham, UK: Nottingham University Press
Rijnen, MMJA (2003) Energetic utilisation of dietary fiber in pigs. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Rijnen, MMJA, Dekker, RA, Bakker, GCM, Verstegen, MWA & Schrama, JW (2001) Effects of dietary fermentable carbohydrates on the empty weights of the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs. In Proceedings of the 8th Symposium of Digestive Physiology of Pigs, pp. 1720 [Lindberg, JE and Ogle, B, editors]. Wallingford, UK:CAB International
Sakata, T (1987) Stimulatory effect of short-chain fatty acids on epithelial cell proliferation in the rat intestine: a possible explanation for trophic effects of fermentable fibre, gut microbes and luminal trophic factors. British Journal of Nutrition 58, 95103
Sakata, T, Hikosaka, K, Shiomura, Y & Tamate, H (1980) Stimulatory effect of insulin on ruminal epithelium cell mitosis in adult sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 44, 325331
Sangild, PT (2001) Transitions in the life of the gut at birth. In Proceedings of the 8th Symposium Digestive Physiology of Pigs, pp. 317 [Lindberg, EJ and Ogle, B, editors]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International
Sangild, PT, Silver, M, Schmidt, M & Fowden, AL (1996) The perinatal pig in pediatric gastroenterology. In Advances in Swine in Biomedical Research, vol. 2, pp. 745756 [Tumbleson, ME and Schook, LB, editors]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International
Seal, CJ & Parker, DS (1994) Effects of intraruminal propionic acid infusion on metabolism of mesenteric- and portal-drained viscera in growing steers fed a forage diet: I. Volatile fatty acids, glucose and lactate. Journal of Animal Science 72, 13251334
Shanahan, F (1994) The intestinal immune system. In Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 3rd ed., pp. 643684 [Johnson, LR, Alpers, DH, Christensen, J, Jacobson, ED and Walsh, JH, editors]. New York: Raven Press
Shen, Z, Seyfert, H-M, Löhrke, B, et al. , (2004) An energy-rich diet causes rumen papillae proliferation associated with more IGF type 1 receptors and increased plasma IGF-1 concentrations in young goats. Journal of Nutrition 134, 1117
Simon, O (1989) Metabolism of proteins and amino acids. In Protein Metabolism in Farm Animals, pp. 273366 [Bock, H-D, Eggum, BO, Low, AG, Simon, O and Zebrowska, T, editors]. Berlin and Oxford: VEB Duetscher Landwirtschaftsverlage and Oxford University Press
Smith, NE & Baldwin, RL (1974) Effects of breed, pregnancy, and lactation on weights of organs and tissues in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 57, 10551060
Smith, RJ & Wilmore, DW (1990) Glutamine nutrition and requirements. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 14, 94S99S
Stoll, B & Burrin, DG (2006) Measuring splanchnic amino acid metabolism in vivo using stable isotope tracers. Journal of Animal Science 84, E60E72
Stoll, B, Burrin, DG, Henry, J, Yu, H, Jahoor, F & Reeds, PJ (1999) Substrate oxidation by the portal drained viscera of fed piglets. American Journal of Physiology 277, E168E175
Stoll, B, Henry, J, Reeds, PJ, Yu, H, Jahoor, F & Burrin, DG (1998) Catabolism dominates the first-pass intestinal metabolism of dietary essential amino acids in milk protein-fed piglets. Journal of Nutrition 128, 606614
Summers, M, McBride, BW & Milligan, LP (1988) Components of basal energy expenditure. In Aspects of Digestive Physiology in Ruminants, pp. 257285 [Dobson, A and Dobson, MJ, editors]. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishing Associates
Van Beers-Schreurs, HMG (1996) The changes in the function of the large intestine of weaned pigs. PhD Thesis, State Unversity of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Van der Meulen, J, Bakker, GCM, Bakker, JGM, De Visser, H, Jongbloed, AW & Everts, H (1997a) Effect of resistant starch on net portal-drained viscera flux of glucose, volatile fatty acids, urea, and ammonia in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 75, 26972704
Van der Meulen, J, Bakker, JG, Smits, B & De Visser, H (1997b) Effects of source of starch on net portal flux of glucose, lactate, volatile fatty acids and amino acids in the pig. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 533544
Van der Meulen, J & Jansman, AJM (1997) Nitrogen metabolism in gastrointestinal tissue of the pig. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 535545
Van der Meulen, J & Smits, B (1997) Digestion and portal appearance of glucose of different sources of non-resistant starch. In Digestive Physiology in Pigs. Proceedings of the VIIth International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, pp. 279282 [Laplace, J-P, Février, C and Barbeau, A, editors]. Saint-Malo, France: INRA
Van Goudoever, JB, Stoll, B, Henry, JF, Burrin, DG & Reeds, PJ (2000) Adaptive regulation of intestinal lysine metabolism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 97, 1162011625
Van Leeuwen, P & Versantvoort, CHM (1999) Functional histology of the small intestinal mucosa in livestock production animals. In Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Physiology – Today and Tomorrow, pp. 921 [AJM Jansman and J Huisman, editors]. Wageningen, The Netherlands: TNO
Van Soest, PJ (1994) Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant, 2nd ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Verdonk, H (2006) Nutritional strategy affects gut integrity in eaned piglets. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Vinardell, MP (1990) Mutual inhibition of sugars and amino acid intestinal absorption. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 95A, 1721
Waheed, AA, Yasuzumi, F & Gupta, PD (1998) Lipid and fatty acid composition of brush border membrane of rat intestine during starvation. Lipids 33, 10931097
Webb, KE & Bergman, EN (1991) Amino acid and peptide absorption and transport across the intestine. In Physiological Aspects of Digestion and Metabolism in Ruminants. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology, pp. 111128 [Tsuda, T, Sasaki, Y and Kawashima, R, editors]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
Windmueller, HG & Spaeth, AE (1974) Uptake and metabolism of plasma glutamine by the small intestine. Journal of Biological Chemistry 249, 50705079
Windmueller, HG & Spaeth, AE (1975) Intestinal metabolism of glutamine and glutamate from the lumen as compared to glutamine from blood. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 171, 662672
Windmueller, HG & Spaeth, AE (1976) Metabolism of absorbed aspartate, asparagine, and arginine by the rat small intestine in vivo. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 175, 670676
Windmueller, HG & Spaeth, AE (1980) Respiratory fuels and nitrogen metabolism in vivo in the small intestine of fed rats. Quantitative importance of glutamine, glutamate, and aspartate. Journal of Biological Chemistry 255, 107112
Wu, G (1998) Intestinal mucosal amino acid catabolism. Journal of Nutrition 128, 12491252
Wu, G, Borbolla, AG & Kanbe, DA (1994) The uptake of glutamine and release of arginine, citrulline and proline by the small intestine of developing pigs. Journal of Nutrition 124, 24372444
Yen, JT, Nienaber, JA, Hill, DA & Pond, WG (1989) Oxygen consumption by portal vein-drained organs and by whole animal in conscious growing swine. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 190, 393398
Yu, YM, Burke, JF, Vogt, JA, Chambers, L & Young, VR (1992) Splanchnic and whole body l-[1-13C, 15N]leucine kinetics in relation to enteral and parenteral amino acid supply. American Journal of Physiology 262, E687E694
Zambell, KL, Fitch, MD & Fleming, SE (2003) Acetate and butyrate are the major substrates for de novo lipogenesis in rat colonic epithelial cells. Journal of Nutrition 133, 35093515

Keywords

Physiology, regulation and multifunctional activity of the gut wall: a rationale for multicompartmental modelling

  • A. Bannink (a1), J. Dijkstra (a2), S.-J. Koopmans (a1) and Z. Mroz (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed