Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The effects of diet on circulating sex hormone levels in men

  • Naomi E Allen (a1) and Timothy J Key (a1)

Abstract

There is considerable epidemiological evidence that a Western-style diet may increase the risk of certain hormone-dependent conditions in men via its effects on hormone metabolism. Experimental evidence also suggests that dietary factors may exert subtle effects on hormone metabolism. Here we review the clinical and epidemiological evidence that diet is associated with circulating sex hormone levels in men. In comparison with factors such as age and BMI, nutrients do not appear to be strong determinants of sex hormone levels. Dietary intervention studies have not shown that a change in dietary fat and/or dietary fibre intake is associated with changes in circulating sex hormone concentrations over the short term. The data on the effects of dietary phyto-oestrogens on sex hormone levels in men are too limited for conclusions to be drawn. Observational studies between men from different dietary groups have shown that a vegan diet is associated with small but significant increases in sex-hormone-binding globulin and testosterone concentrations in comparison with meat-eaters. However, these studies have not demonstrated that variations in dietary composition have any long-term important effects on circulating bioavailable sex hormone levels in men. This lack of effect may be partly explained by the body's negative feedback mechanism, which balances out small changes in androgen metabolism in order to maintain a constant level of circulating bioavailable androgens. It appears, therefore, that future studies should look for dietary effects on the feedback mechanism itself, or on the metabolism of androgens within the target tissues.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The effects of diet on circulating sex hormone levels in men
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The effects of diet on circulating sex hormone levels in men
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The effects of diet on circulating sex hormone levels in men
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Naomi Allen, fax +44 1865301545, email n.allen@icrf.icnet.uk

References

Hide All
Adlercreutz, H, Höckerstedt, K, Bannwart, C, Bloigu, S, Hämäläinen, E, Fotsis, T & Ollus, A (1987) Effect of dietary components, including lignans and phytoestrogens on enterohepatic circulation and liver metabolism of estrogens and on sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 27, 11351144.
Adlercreutz, H, Markkanen, H, & Watanabe, S (1993) Plasma concentrations of phytoestrogens in Japanese men. Lancet 342, 12091210.
Adlercreutz, H & Martin, F (1980) Biliary excretion and intestinal metabolism of progesterone and estrogens in man. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 13, 231244.
Adlercreutz, H & Mazur, W (1997) Phyto-estrogens and Western diseases. Annals of Medicine 29, 95120.
Adlercreutz, H, Mousavi, Y, Clark, J, Höckerstedt, K, Hämäläinen, E, Wahala, K, Mäkelä, T & Hase, T (1992) Dietary phytoestrogens and cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Metabolism 41, 331337.
Allen, NE, Appleby, PN, Davey, GK, & Key, TJ (2000) Hormones and diet: low insulin-like growth factor but normal bioavailable androgens in vegan men. British Journal of Cancer 83, 9597.
Anderson, JW, O'Neal, DS, Ridell-Mason, S, Floore, TL, Dillon, DW & Oeltgen, PR (1995) Postprandial serum glucose, insulin and lipoprotein responses to high- and low-fibre diets. Metabolism 44, 848854.
Armstrong, BK, Brown, JB, Clarke, HT, Crooke, DK, Hahnel, R, Masarei, JR, & Ratajczak, T (1981) Diet and reproductive hormones: a study of vegetarian and non-vegetarian postmenopasual women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 67, 761767.
Bahnsen, M, Gluud, C, Johnsen, SG, Bennett, P, Svenstrup, S, Micic, S, Dietrichson, O, Svendsen, LB, & Brodthagen, UA (1981) Pituitary-testicular function in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 11, 473479.
Baird, DD, Umbach, DM, Landsell, L, Hughes, CL, Setchell, KDR, Weinberg, CR, Habey, AF, Wilcox, AJ, & McLachlan, JA (1995) Dietary intervention study to assess estrogenicity of dietary soy among postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, 16851690.
Ball, M (1997) Vegetarian, vegan or meat-eater: the pros and cons. Australian Family Physician 26, 12691274.
Barbosa, JC, Shultz, TD, Filley, SJ, & Neiman, DC (1990) The relationship among adiposity, diet and hormone concentrations in vegetarian and non-vegetarian postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 798803.
Barnes, S, Peterson, G, & Coward, L (1995) Rationale for the use of genistein-containing soy matrices in chemoprevention trials for breast and prostate cancer. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 22, Suppl., 181s–187s.
Barrett-Connor, E & Khaw, KT (1987) Cigarette smoking and increased endogenous estrogen levels in men. American Journal of Epidemiology 126, 187192.
Bélanger, A, Locong, A, Noel, C, Cusan, L, Dupont, A, Prévost, J, Caron, S & Sévigny, J (1989) Influence of diet on plasma steroid and sex plasma binding globulin levels in adult men. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 32, 829833.
Belis, JA (1980) Methodological basis for the radioimmunoassay of endogenous steroids in human prostatic tissue. Investigative Urology 17, 332336.
Birkett, AM, Jones, GP, de Silva, AM, Young, GP & Muir, JG (1997) Dietary intake and faecal excretion of carbohydrate by Australians: importance of achieving stool weights greater than 150g to improve faecal markers relevant to colon cancer risk. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 625632.
Bishop, TD, Meikle, AW, Slattery, ML, Stringham, JD, Ford, MH, & West, DW (1988) The effect of nutritional factors on sex hormone levels in male twins. Genetic Epidemiology 5, 4359.
Bowey, EA, Rowland, IR, Adlercreutz, H, Sanders, TAB, & Wiseman, H (1988) Inter-individual variation in soya-bean isoflavone metabolism: the role of habitual diet. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 161A.
Brotherhood, JR (1984) Nutrition and preventative medicine. Sports Medicine 1, 350389.
Bruchovsky, N, Rennie, PS, Batzold, FH, Goldenberg, SL, Fletcher, T, & McLoughlin, MG (1988) Kinetic parameters of 5α-reductase activity in stroma and epithelium of normal, hyperplastic, and carcinomatous human prostates. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 67, 806816.
Bruning, PF & Bonfrer, JMG (1986) Free fatty acid concentrations correlated with the available fraction of estradiol in human plasma. Cancer Research 46, 26062609.
Brzezinski, A, Adlercreutz, H, Shaoul, R, Rösler, A, Shmueli, A, Tanos, V & Schenker, JG (1997) Short-term effects of phytoestrogen-rich diet on postmenopausal women. Menopause 4, 8994.
Cassidy, A, Faughnan, M, Hughes, R, Fraser, C, Cathcart, A, Taylor, N, Setchell, KDR, & Bingham, S (1998) Hormonal effects of phytoestrogens in postmenopausal women and middle-aged men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, 1531A.
Coffey, DS & Isaacs, JT (1981) Control of prostate growth. Urology 13, 17s–24s.
Cooke, RR, McIntosh, JEA, & McIntosh, RP (1993) Circadian variation in serum free and non-SHBG-bound testosterone in normal men: measurements, and simulation using a mass action model. Clinical Endocrinology 39, 163171.
Cummings, JH, Wiggins, HS, Jenkins, DJ, Houston, H, Jivraj, T, Drasar, BS, & Hill, MJ (1978) Influence of diets high and low in animal fat on bowel habit, gastrointestinal transit time, fecal microflora, bile acids and fat excretion. Journal of Clinical Investigation 61, 953963.
Dai, WS, Gutai, JP, Kuller, LH, & Cauley, JA (1988) Cigarette smoking and serum sex hormones in men. American Journal of Epidemiology 128, 796805.
Dai, WS, Kuller, LH, LaPorte, RE, Gutai, JP, Falvo-Gerard, L & Caggiula, A (1981) The epidemiology of plasma testosterone levels in middle-aged men. American Journal of Epidemiology 114, 804816.
De Jong, FH, Oishi, K, Hayes, RB, Bogdanowicz, JF, Raatgever, JW, van der Mass, PS, Yoshida, O & Schroeder, FH (1991) Peripheral hormone levels in controls and patients with prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia: results from the Dutch–Japanese case-control study. Cancer Research 51, 34453450.
Denis, L, Morton, MS, & Griffiths, K (1999) Diet and its preventative role in prostatic disease. European Urology 35, 377387.
Deslypere, JP & Vermeulen, A (1984) Leydig cell function in normal men: effect of age, life-style, residence, diet and activity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 59, 955962.
Distiller, LA, Sagel, J, Dubowitz, B, Kay, G, Carr, PJ, Katz, M, & Kew, MC (1976) Pituitary–gonadal function in men with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. Hormone and Metabolic Research 8, 461465.
Diver, MJ (1993) The effects of free fatty acids on the in vitro binding of testosterone in human plasma. Journal of Endocrinology 136, 327330.
Dorgan, JF, Judd, JT, Longcope, C, Brown, C, Schatzkin, A, Clevidence, BA, Campbell, WS, Nair, PN, Franz, C, Kahle, L, & Taylor, PR (1996) Effects of dietary fat and fiber on plasma and urine androgens and estrogens in men: a controlled feeding study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 850855.
Duncan, S, Blacklaw, J, Beastall, GH, & Brodie, MJ (1999) Antiepileptic drug therapy and sexual function in men with epilepsy. Epilepsia 49, 197204.
Dunn, JF, Nisula, BC, & Rodbard, D (1981) Transport of steroid hormones: binding of 21 endogenous steroid to both testosterone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in human plasma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 53, 5868.
Ehrlichman, RJ, Issacs, JT, & Coffey, DS (1981) Differences of the effects of estradiol on DHT-induced prostatic growth of the castrate dog and rat. Investigative Urology 18, 466470.
Ellingboe, J (1987) Acute effects of ethanol on sex hormones in non-alcoholic men and women. Alcohol and Alcoholism 1, 109s–116s.
Ellis, L & Nyborg, H (1992) Racial/ethnic variations in male testosterone levels: a probable contributor to group differences in health. Steroids 57, 7275.
Evans, BAJ, Griffiths, K, & Morton, MS (1995) Inhibition of 5α-reductase in genital skin fibroblasts and prostate tissue by dietary lignans and isoflavonoids. Journal of Endocrinology 147, 295302.
Farnsworth, WE (1996) Roles of estrogen and sex hormone-binding globulin in prostate physiology. Prostate 28, 1723.
Ferrini, RL & Barrett-Connor, E (1998) Sex hormones and age: a cross-sectional study of testosterone and estradiol and their bio-available fractions in community-dwelling men. American Journal of Epidemiology 147, 750754.
Field, AE, Colditz, GA, Willett, WC, Longcope, C, & McKinlay, JB (1994) The relation of smoking, age, relative weight and dietary intake to serum adrenal steroids, sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin in middle-aged men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 79, 13101316.
Foppiani, L, Uva, V, Falivene, M, Valenti, S, Traversa, C, Rasore, E, & Giusti, M (1997) Anorexia nervosa: a follow-up of nutritional, hormonal and psychiatric parameters. Minerva Medica 86, 537542.
Gann, PH, Hennekens, CH, Ma, J, Longcope, C, & Stampfer, MJ (1996) Prospective study of sex hormone levels and risk of prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88, 11181126.
Giles, G & Ireland, P (1997) Diet, nutrition and prostate cancer. International Journal of Cancer 10, Suppl., 13s–17s.
Glass, AR, Swerdloff, RS, Bray, GA, Dahms, WT, & Atkinson, RL (1977) Low serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in massively obese men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 45, 12111219.
Goldin, BR, Adlercreutz, H, Gorbach, SL, Warram, JH, Dwyer, JT, Swenson, L, & Woods, MN (1982) Estrogen excretion patterns and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women. New England Journal of Medicine 307, 15421547.
Goldin, BR & Gorbach, SL (1976) The relationship between diet and rat fecal bacterial enzymes implicated in colon cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 57, 371375.
Goldin, BR, Swenson, L, Dwyer, J, Sexton, M, & Gorbach, SL (1980) Effect of diet and Lactobacillus acidophilus supplements on human fecal bacterial enzymes. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 64, 255261.
Goldin, BR, Woods, MN, Spiegelman, DL, Longcope, C, Morrill-LaBrode, A, Dwyer, JT, Gualtieri, LJ, Hertzmark, E & Gorbach, SL (1994) The effect of dietary fat and fiber on serum estrogen concentrations in pre-menopausal women under controlled dietary conditions. Cancer 74, 1125s–1131s.
Goldman, J, Wajchenberg, B, Liberman, M, Nery, S, Achando, S, & Germek, OA (1985) Contrast analysis for the evaluation of the circadian rhythms of plasma cortisol, androstenedione and testosterone in normal men and the possible influence of meals. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 60, 164167.
Gooren, LJG (1996) The age-related decline of androgen levels in men: clinically significant?. British Journal of Andrology 78, 763768.
Gordon, GG, Altman, K, Southren, AL, Rubin, E, & Lieber, CS (1976) Effect of alcohol (ethanol) administration on sex-hormone metabolism in normal men. New England Journal of Medicine 295, 793797.
Gray, A, Berlin, JA, McKinlay, JB, & Longcope, C (1991) An examination of research design effects on the association of testosterone and male aging: results of a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 44, 671684.
Groh, H, Schade, K & Horhold-Schubert, C (1993) Steroid metabolism with intestinal micro-organisms. Journal of Basic Microbiology 33, 5972.
Haffner, SM (1996) Sex hormone-binding globulin protein, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Hormone Research 45, 233237.
Haffner, SM, Valdez, RA, Mykkanen, L, Stern, MP, & Katz, MS (1994) Decreased testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentrations are associated with increased insulin and glucose concentrations in non-diabetic men. Metabolism 43, 599603.
Hämäläinen, E, Adlercreutz, H, Puska, P & Pietinen, P (1984) Diet and serum sex hormones in healthy men. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 20, 459464.
Henderson, BE, Bernstein, L, Ross, RK, Depue, RH, & Judd, HL (1988) The early in utero oestrogen and testosterone environment of blacks and whites: potential effects on male offspring. British Journal of Cancer 57, 216218.
Hill, P, Wynder, E, Garbaczewski, L, Garnes, H, Walker, ARP, & Helman, P (1980) Plasma hormones and lipids in men at different risk for coronary heart disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, 10101018.
Hill, P, Wynder, EL, Garbaczewski, L, & Walker, ARP (1982) Effect of diet on plasma and urinary hormones in South African black men with prostatic cancer. Cancer Research 42, 38643869.
Howie, BJ & Shultz, TD (1985) Dietary and hormonal interrelationships among vegetarian Seventh Day Adventists and non-vegetarian men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42, 127134.
Hsieh, CC, Signorello, LB, Lipworth, L, Lagiou, P, Mantzoros, CS, & Trichopoulos, D (1998) Predictors of sex hormone levels among the elderly: a study in Greece. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 51, 837841.
Hughes, R, Cassidy, A, & Bingham, S (1994) Hormonal effects of lignans in a group of men. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 53, 230A.
Hutchins, AM, Slavin, JL, & Lampe, JW (1995) Urinary isoflavonoid phytoestrogen and lignan excretion after consumption of fermented and unfermented soy products. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 95, 545551.
Järvenpää, P, Kosunen, T, Fotsis, T & Adlercreutz, H (1980) In vitro metabolism of estrogens by isolated intestinal micro-organisms and by human faecal microflora. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 13, 345349.
Jenkins, DJA, Wolever, TMS, Leeds, AR, Gassull, MA, Haisman, P, Dilawari, J, Goff, DR, Metz, GL, & Alberti, KG (1978) Dietary fibres, fibre analogues and glucose tolerance: importance of viscosity. British Medical Journal 1, 13921394.
Jin, F, Devesa, SS, Zheng, W, Blot, WJ, Fraumeni, JF, & Gao, YT (1993) Cancer incidence trends in urban Shanghai, 1972–1989. International Journal of Cancer 53, 764770.
Kaiser, FE, Viosca, SP, Morley, JE, Mooradian, AD, Davis, SS, & Korenman, SG (1988) Impotence and aging: clinical and hormonal factors. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 36, 511519.
Kaufman, JM, Deslypere, JP, Giri, M, & Vermeulen, A (1990) Neuroendocrine regulation of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in elderly men. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 37, 421430.
Kay, RM & Strasberg, SM (1978) Origin, chemistry, physiological effects and clinical importance of dietary fibre. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 1, 924.
Key, TJA, Pike, MC, Moore, JW, Wang, DY, & Morgan, B (1990) The relationship of free fatty acids with the binding of oestradiol to sex hormone-binding globulin and to albumin in women. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 35, 3538.
Key, TJA, Roe, L, Thorogood, M, Moore, JW, Clark, GM, & Wang, DY (1990) Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, calculated free testosterone and oestradiol in male vegans and omnivores. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 111119.
Kletter, GB, Padmanabhan, V, Beitins, IZ, Marshall, JC, Kelch, RP, & Foster, CM (1997) Acute effects of estradiol infusion and naloxone on luteinising hormone secretion in pubertal boys. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82, 40104014.
Kley, HK, Deselaers, T, Peerenboom, H, & Kruskemper, HL (1980) Enhanced conversion of androstenedione to estrogens in obese males. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 51, 11281132.
Kley, HK, Edelmann, P, & Kruskemper, HL (1980) Relationship of plasma sex hormones to different parameters of obesity in male subjects. Metabolism 29, 10411045.
Korenman, SG, Morley, JE, Mooradian, AD, Davis, SS, Kaiser, FE, Silver, AJ, Viosca, SP, & Garza, D (1990) Secondary hypogonadism in older men: its relationship to impotence. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 71, 963969.
Krenz, LE, Rose, RM, & Jennings, JR (1972) Suppression of plasma testosterone levels and psychological stress: a longitudinal study of young men in office candidate school. Archives of General Psychiatry 26, 479482.
Kubricht, WS, Williams, BJ, Whatley, T, Pinckard, P, & Eastham, JA (1999) Serum testosterone levels in African–American and white men undergoing prostate biopsy. Urology 54, 10351038.
Lado-Abeal, JH, Prieto, D, Lorenzo, M, Lojo, S, Febrero, M, Camarero, E & Cabezas-Cerrato, J (1999) Differences in men and women as regards the effects of protein–energy malnutrition on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Nutrition 15, 351358.
Lampe, JW, Martini, MC, Kurzer, MS, Adlercreutz, H, & Slavin, JL (1994) Urinary lignan and isoflavonoid excretion in premenopausal women consuming flaxseed powder. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 122128.
Lazarus, R, Sparrow, D, & Weiss, S (1998) Temporal relations between obesity and insulin: longitudinal data from the Normative Aging Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 147, 173179.
Lecomte, P, Lecureuil, N, Lecureuil, M, Lemonnier, Y, Mariotte, N, Valat, C, & Garrigue, MA (1998) Sex differences in the control of sex hormone-binding globulin in the elderly: role of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin. European Journal of Endocrinology 139, 178183.
Lee, PA, Bellinger, MF, & Coughlin, MT (1998) Correlations among hormone levels, sperm parameters and paternity in formerly unilaterally cryptorchid men. Journal of Urology 160, 11551157.
Lewis, SL, Heaton, KW, Oakey, RE, & McGarrigle, HH (1997) Lower serum oestrogen concentrations associated with faster intestinal transit. British Journal of Cancer 76, 395400.
Liu, PY, Turner, L, Rushford, D, McDonald, J, Baker, HW, Conway, AJ, & Handelsman, DJ (1999) Efficacy and safety of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (Gonal-F) with urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin for induction of spermatogenesis and fertility in gonadotrophin-deficient men. Human Reproduction 14, 15401545.
Longcope, C, Feldman, HA, McKinlay, JB, & Araujo, AB (2000) Diet and sex hormone-binding globulin. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85, 293296.
Lookingbill, DP, Demers, LM, Wang, C, Leung, A, Rittmaster, RS, & Santen, RJ (1991) Clinical and biological parameters of androgen action in normal healthy Caucasian versus Chinese subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 72, 12411248.
Loukovaara, M, Carson, M, Palotie, A, & Adlercreutz, H (1995) Regulation of sex hormone-binding globulin production by isoflavonoids and patterns of isoflavonoid conjugation in HepG2 cell cultures. Steroids 60, 656661.
Lu, LJW, Anderson, KE, Grady, JJ, & Nagamini, M (1996) Effects of soya consumption for one month on steroid hormones in premenopausal women: implications for breast cancer reduction. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 5, 6370.
Lu, LJW, Anderson, KE, Nealon, W, & Nagamini, M (1998) One month of soy consumption reduces concentrations of circulating steroid hormones and cholecystokinin in men and women. American Journal of Clinical and Nutrition 68, 1531A.
Lu, LJW, Grady, JJ, Marshall, MV, Sadagopa Ramanujam, VM & Anderson, KE (1995) Altered time course of urinary daidzein and genistein excretion during chronic soya diet in healthy male subjects. Nutrition and Cancer 24, 311323.
Manni, A, Pardridge, WM, Cefalu, W, Nisula, BC, Bardin, CW, Santner, SJ, & Santen, RS (1985) Bioavailability of albumin-bound testosterone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 61, 705710.
Markiewicz, L, Garey, J, Adlercreutz, H, & Gurpide, E (1993) In vitro bioassays of non-steroidal phytoestrogens. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 45, 399405.
Martin, ME, Vranckx, R, Benassayag, C, & Nunez, EA (1986) Modifications of the properties of human sex steroid-binding protein by nonesterified fatty acids. Journal of Biological Chemistry 261, 29542959.
Marynick, SP, Loriaux, DL, Sherins, RJ, Pita, JC, & Lipsett, MB (1979) Evidence that testosterone can suppress pituitary gonadotrophin secretion independently of peripheral aromatization. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 49, 396398.
Matzkin, H & Soloway, MS (1993) Cigarette smoking: a review of possible associations with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Prostate 22, 277290.
Miller, SL & Wolfe, RR (1999) Physical exercise as a modulator of adaptation to low and high carbohydrate and low and high fat intakes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 112s–119s.
Morley, JE, Kasier, FE, Perry, HM, Patrick, P, Morley, PMK, Stauber, PM, Vellas, B, Baumgartner, RN, & Garry, PJ (1997) Longitudinal changes in testosterone, luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in healthy older men. Metabolism 46, 410413.
Mousavi, Y & Adlercreutz, H (1993) Genistein is an effective stimulator of sex hormone-binding globulin production in hepatocarcinoma in human liver cancer cells and suppresses proliferation of these cells in culture. Steroids 58, 301304.
Nagata, C, Kabuta, M, Kurisu, Y, & Shimizu, H (1997) Decreased serum estradiol concentration associated with high dietary intake of soy products in premenopausal Japanese women. Nutrition and Cancer 29, 228233.
Nahoul, K & Roger, M (1990) Age-related decline of plasma bio-available testosterone in adult men. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 35, 293299.
Nilsson, PM, Moller, L, & Solstad, K (1995) Adverse effects of psychological stress on gonadal function and insulin levels in middle-aged men. Journal of Internal Medicine 237, 479486.
Parkin, OM, Muir, CS, Whelan, S, Gao, T, Ferlay, J & Powell, J (1992) Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, vol. 6 International Agency for Research into Cancer Scientific Publication no. 120. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research into Cancer.
Pasquali, R, Casimirri, F, De Iasio, R, Mesini, P, Boschi, S, Chierici, B, Flamia, R, Biscotti, M & Vicennati, V (1995) Insulin regulates testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in adult normal-weight and obese men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, 654658.
Pasquali, R, Macor, C, Vicennati, V, Novo, F, De lasio, R, Messini, P, Boschi, S, Casimirri, F & Vettor, R (1997) Effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on testosterone serum concentrations in adult obese and normal-weight men. Metabolism 46, 526529.
Pelissero, C, Lenczowski, MJP, Chinzi, D, Davailcuisset, B, Stumpter, JP, & Fostier, A (1996) Effects of flavonoids on aromatase activity: an in vitro study. Journal of Steroids, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 57, 215223.
Phipps, WR, Martini, MC, Lampe, JW, Slavin, JL, & Kurzer, MS (1993) Effect of flaxseed ingestion on the menstrual cycle. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 77, 12151219.
Plymate, SR, Jones, RE, Matej, LA, & Freidl, KE (1988) Regulation of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) production in Hep G2 cells by insulin. Steroids 52, 339340.
Pusateri, DJ, Roth, WT, Ross, JK, & Shultz, TD (1990) Dietary and hormonal evaluation of men at different risks for prostate cancer: plasma and fecal hormone-nutrient interrelationships. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 371377.
Raben, A, Kiens, B, Richter, EA, Rasmussen, LB, Svenstrup, B, Micic, S, & Bennett, P (1992) Serum sex hormones and endurance performance after a lacto-ovo-vegetarian and a mixed diet. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 24, 12901297.
Reddy, BS, Hanson, D, Mangat, S, Matthews, L, Sbaschnig, M, Sharma, C, & Simi, B (1980) Effect of high-fat, high-beef diet and of mode of cooking of beef in the diet on fecal bacterial enzymes and fecal bile acids and neutral sterols. Journal of Nutrition 110, 18801887.
Reed, MJ, Cheng, RW, Beranek, PA, Few, JD, Franks, S, Ghilchik, MW, & James, VH (1986) The regulation of the biologically available fractions of oestradiol and testosterone in plasma. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 24, 317320.
Reed, MJ, Cheng, RW, Simmonds, M, Richmond, W, & James, VHT (1987) Dietary lipids: an additional regulator of plasma levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 64, 10831085.
Rittmaster, RS, Zwicker, H, Thompson, DL, Konok, G, & Norman, RW (1993) Androstanediol glucuronide production in human liver, prostate and skin: evidence for the importance of the liver in 5α-reduced androgen metabolism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 76, 977982.
Rose, DP, Boyar, AP, & Wynder, EL (1986) International comparisons of mortality rates for cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate and colon, and per capita food consumption. Cancer 58, 23622371.
Rose, DP, Goldman, M, Connolly, JM, & Strong, LE (1991) High-fiber diet reduces serum estrogen concentrations in premenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 520525.
Rosenthal, MB, Barnard, RJ, Rose, DP, Inkeles, S, Hall, J, & Pritikin, N (1985) Effects of high-complex carbohydrate, low-fat, low-cholesterol diet on levels of serum lipids and estradiol. American Journal of Medicine 78, 2327.
Rosner, W (1990) The functions of corticosteroid-binding globulin and sex hormone-binding globulin: recent advances. Endocrine Reviews 11, 8091.
Ross, JK, Pusateri, DJ, & Shultz, TD (1990) Dietary and hormonal evaluation of men at different risks of prostate cancer: fiber intake, excretion and composition, with in vitro evidence for an association between steroid hormones and specific fiber components. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 365370.
Ross, R, Bernstein, L, Judd, H, Hanisch, R, Pike, M, & Henderson, B (1986) Serum testosterone levels in healthy young black and white men. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 76, 4548.
Ross, RK, Bernstein, L, Lobo, RA, Shimizu, H, Stanczyk, FZ, Pike, MC, & Henderson, BE (1992) 5α-reductase activity and risk of prostate cancer among Japanese and U.S. white and black males. Lancet 339, 887889.
Santer, SJ, Albertson, B, Zhang, G-Y, Zhang, G-H, Santulli, M, Wang, C, Demers, LM, Shackleton, C & Santen, RJ (1998) Comparative rates of androgen production and metabolism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83, 21042109.
Sapin, R, Schlienger, JL, Gasser, F, & Chambron, J (1992) Changes in serum testosterone levels after myocardial infarction. Journal of Nuclear Biology and Medicine 36, 2025.
Sathyamoorthy, N, Wang, TTY, & Phang, JM (1994) Stimulation of pS2 expression by diet-derived compounds. Cancer Research 54, 957961.
Schneider, G, Kirschner, MA, Berkowitz, R, & Ertel, NH (1979) Increased estrogen production in obese men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 48, 633638.
Setchell, KDR (1998) Phytoestrogens: the biochemistry, physiology and implications for human health of soy isoflavones. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, 133S–146S.
Shetty, PS & Kurpad, AV (1986) Increasing starch intake in the human diet increases fecal bulking. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 210212.
Shultz, TD & Howie, DJ (1986) In vitro binding of steroid hormones by natural and purified fibres. Nutrition and Cancer 8, 141147.
Shultz, TD, Bonorden, WR, & Seaman, WR (1991) Effect of short-term flaxseed consumption on lignan and sex hormone metabolism in men. Nutrition Research 11, 10891100.
Simon, D, Preziosi, P, Barrett-Connor, E, Roger, M, Saint-Paul, M, Nahoul, K & Papoz, L (1992) The influence of aging on plasma sex hormones in men: the Telecom study. American Journal of Epidemiology 135, 783791.
Smith, U (1994) Carbohydrates, fat and insulin action. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 686s–689s.
Stark, AH, Switzer, BR, Atwood, JR, Travis, RG, Smith, JL, Ullrich, F, Ritenbaugh, C, Hatch, J, & Wu, X (1998) Estrogen profiles in postmenopausal African-American women in a wheat bran fiber intervention study. Nutrition and Cancer 31, 138142.
Stefanick, ML, Williams, PT, Krauss, RM, Terry, RB, Vranizan, KM, & Wood, PD (1987) Relationships of plasma estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding protein with lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and high density lipoprotein sub-fractions in men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 64, 723729.
Strain, G, Zumoff, B, Rosner, W & Pi-Suyner, X (1994) The relationship between serum levels of insulin and sex hormone-binding globulin in men: the effect of weight loss. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 79, 11731176.
Suzuki, H, Tominaga, T, Kumagai, H, & Saruta, T (1988) Effects of first-line antihypertensive agents on sexual function and sex hormones. Journal of Hypertension 6, 649s–651s.
Tchernof, A, Labrie, F, Bélanger, A, Prud'homme, D, Bouchard, C, Tremblay, A, Nadeau, A & Despres, JP (1997) Relationships between endogenous steroid hormones, SHBG and lipoprotein levels in men: contribution of visceral obesity, insulin levels and other metabolic variables. Atherosclerosis 133, 235244.
Theorell, TK, Karasek, RA, & Eneroth, P (1990) Job strain variations in relation to plasma testosterone fluctuations in working men - a longitudinal study. Journal of Internal Medicine 227, 3136.
Thigpen, AE, Silver, TI, Guileyardo, JM, Casey, ML, McConnell, JD, & Russell, DW (1993) Tissue distribution and ontogeny of steroid 5α-reductase isozyme expression. Journal of Clinical Investigation 92, 903910.
Thompson, LU, Robb, P, Serraino, M, & Cheung, F (1991) Mammalian lignan production from various foods. Nutrition and Cancer 16, 4352.
Thorsdottir, I, Anderson, H, & Einarsson, S (1998) Sugar beet fiber in formula diet reduces postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin and serum hydroxyproline. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 155156.
Tomova, A & Kumanov, P (1999) Sex differences and similarities of hormonal alternation in patients with anorexia nervosa. Andrologia 31, 143147.
Valero-Politi, J & Fuentes-Arderiu, X (1993) Within- and between-subject biological variations of follitropin, lutropin, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in men. Clinical Chemistry 39, 17231725.
Valimaki, M, Salaspuro, M, Härkönen, M & Ylikahri, R (1982) Liver damage and sex hormones in chronic male alcoholics. Clinical Endocrinology 17, 469477.
Vegetarian Society UK (2000) Summary of RealEat polls, 1984-1999. Vegetarian Society Information Sheet. accessed 25.4.2000. http:\\\\www.vegsoc.org/info/realeat.html.
Vermeulen, A, Kaufman, JM, Deslypere, JP, & Thomas, G (1993) Attenuated luteinising hormone (LH) pulse amplitude but normal LH pulse frequency, and its relation to plasma androgens in hypogonadism of obese men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 76, 11401146.
Vermeulen, A, Kaufman, JM, & Giagulli, VA (1996) Influence of some biological indexes on sex hormone-binding globulin and androgen levels in aging or obese males. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81, 18211826.
Vermeulen, A & Verdonck, G (1992) Representativeness of a single point plasma testosterone level for the long term hormonal milieu in men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 74, 939942.
Warren, MP, Voussoughian, F, Geer, EB, Hyle, EP, Adberg, CL, & Ramos, RH (1999) Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: hypoleptinemia and disordered eating. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 84, 873877.
Wilding, G (1995) Endocrine control of prostate cancer. In Preventing Prostate Cancer: Screening vs. Chemoprevention. Cancer Surveys, vol. 23 [Olliver, RTD, Belldegrum, A and Wrigley, PFM, editors]. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Lab Press.
Winters, SJ & Atkinson, L (1997) Serum luteinising hormone concentrations in hypogonadal men during transdermal testosterone replacement through scrotal skin: further evidence that ageing enhances testosterone negative feedback. The Testoderm Study Group. Clinical Endocrinology 47, 317322.
World Health Organization (1985) Energy and Protein Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 724. Geneva: WHO.
Wu, AH, Whittemore, AS, Kolonel, LN, John, EM, Gallagher, RP, West, DW, Hankin, J, The, CZ, Dreon, DM, & Paffenbarger, RS (1995) Serum androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin in relation to lifestyle factors in older African-American, white and Asian men in the United States and Canada. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 4, 735741.
Ylikahri, RH, Huttunen, MO, Härkönen, M, Leino, T, Helenius, T, Liewendahl, K & Karonen, SL (1978) Acute effects of alcohol on anterior pituitary secretion of the trophic hormones. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 46, 715720.
Yu, H, Harris, RE, Gao, YT, & Wynder, LE (1991) Comparative epidemiology of cancers of the colon, rectum, prostate and breast in Shanghai, China versus the US. International Journal of Epidemiology 20, 7681.
Zumoff, B, Strain, GW, Kream, J, O'Connor, J, Levin, J & Fukushima, DK (1981) Obese young men have elevated plasma oestrogen levels but obese premenopausal women do not. Metabolism 30, 10111014.
Zwart, AD, Urban, RJ, Odell, WD, & Veldhuis, JD (1996) Contrasts in the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone dose-response relationships for luteinising hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and alpha-subunit release in young versus older men: appraisal with high specificity immunoradiometric assay and deconvolution analysis. European Journal of Endocrinology 135, 399406.

Keywords

The effects of diet on circulating sex hormone levels in men

  • Naomi E Allen (a1) and Timothy J Key (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed