1 Until 1994, OSCE was known as the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE).
2 A separate, much earlier application was submitted already in 1996, before the necessary ordinances for setting up a national register had been drafted.
4 “O proekte zakona Estonskoi Respubliki ‘O politicheskikh, sotsial’nykh i kul’turnykh pravakh natsional’nykh menshinstv,’ poriadke ego vyrabotki i vozmozhnykh na eto material’nykh zatratakh,” Eesti Vabariigi Ülemnõukogu Rahvussuhete Komisjon, Dokumendid Eesti Vabariigi vähemusrahvuste kultuuriautonoomia seaduse väljatöötamise kohta, Eesti Rahvusarhiiv (ERA) R-3.13.356.
5 ERA.R-3.13.356, page 18.
6 ‘Zakon o kul’turnom samoupredlenii natsional’nykh men’shinstv,” (ERA) R-3.13.356’, page 44.
7 ERA.R-3.13.356, pages 1–8 and page 44.
8 In an interview with the author in August 2015, Aksel Kirch drew an analogy with Estonia’s inter-war Baltic German community for which the 1925 law was seen as a way of facilitating a transition from a previously dominant imperial elite to national minority in an independent state.
9 ERA.R-3.13.356, page 34.
10 ‘Arvamus Eesti Vabariigi rahvusvähemuse kultuuriomavalitsuse seaduse eelnõu kohta,” ERA.R-3.13.356, page 85.
11 This was the Russian government’s interpretation of the January 1991 inter-state treaty with Estonia, which it used as the basis for recognizing Estonia’s independence on August 24.
12 Estonia applied for CoE membership in October 1991.
13 VII Riigikogu Stenogramm, September 30, 1993: 219.
14 VII Riigikogu Stenogramm, September 30, 1993: 219.
15 VII Riigikogu Stenogramm, September 30, 1993: 217.
16 VII Riigikogu Stenogramm, September 30, 1993: 220.
17 VII Riigikogu Stenogramm, September 30, 1993: 215.
18 VII Riigikogu Stenogramm, October 26, 1993: 427.
19 VII Riigikogu Stenogramm, September 30, 1993: 221.
20 VII Riigikogu Stenogramm, September 30, 1993: 221. As regards the territorially-based provision for Russians, the 1992 constitution allows the government to approve public use of other languages alongside Estonian in municipalities where “national minorities” constitute over 50% of the population. However, the definition of national minority under the NCA law (which superseded the 1989 Law on National Rights of Citizens of the ESSR) rendered this criterion inapplicable to Tallinn and the largely Russophone cities of the north-east, where most residents were noncitizens.
21 VII Riigikogu Stenogramm, October 26, 1993: 424.
22 Interview with Kabanen 2012; interview with Kalm 2015.
Aidarov, Aleksandr, and , WolfgangDrechsler, . 2011. The Law and Economics of the Estonian Law on Cultural Autonomy for National Minorities and of Russian National Cultural Autonomy in Estonia. Halduskultuur – Administrative Culture 12 (1): 43–61.
Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism Reframed. Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Burgess, Adam. 1999. “Critical Reflections on the Return of National Minority Rights Regulation to East-West European Affairs.” In Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe, edited by Cordell, Karl, 49–60. London: Routledge.
Buquicchio, Gianni. 2008. ‘Introductory Address’. In Council of Europe Venice Commission. The Participation of Minorities in Public Life. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Chandler, David. 1999. “OSCE and the Internationalisation of National Minority Rights.” In Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe, edited by Cordell, Karl, 61–76. London: Routledge.
Coakley, John. 1994. “Approaches to the Resolution of Ethnic Conflict: The Strategy of Non-territorial Autonomy.” International Political Science Review 15 (3): 297–314.
Coakley, John. 2016. “Conclusion: Patterns of Non-Territorial Autonomy.” Ethnopolitics 15 (1): 166–185.
Csergő, Zsuzsa, and Regelmann, Ada. 2017a. “Europeanization and Minority Political Action in Central and Eastern Europe.” Problems of Post-Communism 64 (5): 215–218.
Csergő, Zsuzsa, and Regelmann, Ada. 2017b. “Europeanization and Collective Rationality in Minority Voting: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe.” Problems of Post-Communism 64 (5): 291–310.
Dembinska, Magdalena, Máracz, László, and Tonk, Márton. 2014. “Introduction to the Special Section: Minority Politics and the Territoriality Principle in Europe.” Nationalities Papers 42 (3): 355–375.
Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle, and Wright, Sue. 2013. “Language, Nation and Citizenship: Contrast, Conflict and Convergence in Estonia’s Debate with the International Community.” Nationalities Papers 41 (2): 240–258.
Jurado, Elena. 2003. “Complying with European Standards of Minority Education: Estonia’s Relations with the European Union, OSCE and Council of Europe.” Journal of Baltic Studies 34 (3): 399–431.
Kallas, Kristina. 2016. “Claiming the Diaspora: Russia’s Compatriot Policy and Its Reception by Estonian-Russian Population.” Journal of Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe 15 (3): 1–25.
Kekelidze, E.1992. “Eto budet Estonskii Variant.” Estoniya, September 18.
Kelley, Judith. 2004. Ethnic Politics in Europe: The Power of Norms and Incentives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kymlicka, Will. 2007. “National Cultural Autonomy and International Minority Rights Norms.” Ethnopolitics 6 (3): 379–393.
Kymlicka, Will, and Norman, Wayne. 2000. Citizenship in Diverse Societies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Lagerspetz, Mikko. 2014. “Cultural Autonomy of National Minorities in Estonia: The Erosion of a Promise.” Journal of Baltic Studies 45 (3): 457–475.
Laurits, Kaido. 2008. Saksa Kultuuromavalitsus EV 1925–1940. Tallinn: Rahvusarhiiv.
Malloy, Tove H.2015. “Introduction.” In Managing Diversity through Non-Territorial Autonomy: Assessing Advantages, Deficiencies and Risks, edited by Malloy, Tove H., Osipov, Alexander, and Vizi, Balazs, 1–15. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Melvin, Neil. 1995. Russians Beyond Russia. London: RIIA.
Mylonas, Harris. 2013. The Politics of Nation-Building: Making Co-Nationals, Refugees, and Minorities. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
OSCE (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe). 1999. The Lund Recommendations on the Effective Participation of National Minorities in Public Life.
OSCE (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe). 2012. The Ljubljana Guidelines on Integration of Diverse Societies.
Osipov, Alexander. 2010. “National Cultural Autonomy in Russia: A Case of Symbolic Law.” Review of Central and East European Law 35: 27–57.
Pettai, Vello. 2006. “Explaining Ethnic Politics in the Baltic States: Reviewing the Triadic Nexus Model.” Journal of Baltic Studies 37 (1): 124–136.
Pettai, Vello, and Kallas, Kristina. 2009. “Estonia: Conditionality amidst a Legal Straightjacket.” In Minority Rights in Central and Eastern Europe, edited by Rechel, Bernd, 104–118. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Poleshchuk, Vadim. 2013. “Changes in the Concept of National Cultural Autonomy in Estonia.” In The Challenge of Non-Territorial Autonomy, edited by Nimni, Ephraim, Osipov, Alexander, and Smith, David, 149–162. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang.
Poleshchuk, Vadim. 2015. “Russian National Cultural Autonomy in Estonia.” In Managing Diversity through Non-Territorial Autonomy: Assessing Advantages, Deficiencies and Risks, edited by Malloy, Tove H., Osipov, Alexander and Vizi, Balázs, 229–248. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Purger, Tibor. (2012). “Ethnic Self-Governance in Serbia: The First Two Years of the National Minority Councils.” South-East Europe International Relations Quarterly 3 (2): 1–17.
Renner, Karl.2005. “State and Nation.” In National Cultural Autonomy and Its Contemporary Critics, edited by Ephraim Nimni 15–47. London: Routledge.
Roshwald, Aviel. 2007. “Between Balkanization and Banalization: Dilemmas of Ethno-Cultural Diversity.” Ethnopolitics 6 (3): 365–378.
Semenov, Aleksei. 2006. “Komu zhe eto vygodno? [Whom Does It Benefit?],” Molodezh’ Estonii, April 26.
Smith, David J.1998. “Russia, Estonia and the Search for Stable Ethno-politics.” Journal of Baltic Studies 29 (1) 1998: 3–18.
Smith, David J. 2002a. “Framing the National Question in Central and Eastern Europe: A Quadratic Nexus?” Global Review of Ethnopolitics 2 (1): 3–16.
Smith, David J.2002b. “Narva Region within the Estonian Republic. From Autonomism to Accommodation?” Regional and Federal Studies 12 (2): 89–110.
Smith, David J.2016. “Estonia: A Model for Interwar Europe?” Ethnopolitics 15 (1): 89–104.
Smith, David J., and John, Hiden. 2012. Ethnic Diversity and the Nation State: National Cultural Autonomy Revisited. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Smith, Graham. 1999. “Transnational Politics and the Politics of the Russian Diaspora.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 22 (3): 500–523.
Székely, István Gergő, and István Horváth. 2014. “Diversity Recognition and Minority Representation in Central and Southeast Europe: A Comparative Analysis.” Nationalities Papers 42 (3): 426–448.
Virov, A.1991. “Rossiia i Estoniia: segodnia i zavtra.” Sovetskaia Estoniia, February 27.
Waterbury, Myra A.2010. Between State and Nation: Diaspora Politics and Kin-State Nationalism in Hungary. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.