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The History of the Oil Industry in Independent Estonia

  • David M. Crowe (a1)

Extract

Estonia emerged from World War I economically devastated, with no significant industrial base to build its economy. Yet, within twenty years, it had come to play an important economic role among the Baltic states and seemed destined to assume an equally important position throughout northeastern Europe because of its wise development of its vast oil shale deposits.

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Notes

1. Riigi Polevkivitööstus, 1918–1928 (Tallinnas: Riigi Polevkivitööstus Kirjastus, 1928), pp. 910; Paul N. Kogerman, The Oil-Shale Industry of Estonia (Tartu: H. Laakman, 1927), pp. 3–5.

2. Riigi Polevkivitööstus, pp. 919; United States, Department of State Consular Trade Reports, American Consulate, Tallinn, No. 298462, December 17, 1928, p. 6. Hereafter referred to as CTR; “Speech, Estonian Minister of Economic Affairs, February, 1938,” in “Development of Estonian Oilshale Industry in 1937,” CTR, No. 8315, April 2, 1938, p. 2; Kogerman, The Oil-Shale Industry of Estonia, p. 6.

3. Riigi Polevkivitööstus, pp. 35–38; “Recent Developments in the Estonian Oil Shale Industry,” in CTR, No. 330729, February 15, 1930, p. 2; “Present Status of the Estonian Oil Shale Industry,” in CTR, No. 67150, June 17, 1933, p. 2.

4. Riigi Polevkivitööstus, pp. 3536, 44; Paul N. Kogerman, “The Natural Resources of Estonia,” in “Estonia: Economic and Financial Progress,” The Banker, v. 45(March, 1938), p. 343; Arvo Horm, “The Estonian Shale Oil Industry,” in CTR, American Legation, Stockholm, No. 3458, 860i.6363/6.244, June 2, 1944, pp. 1 2; Kogerman, The Oil-Shale Industry of Estonia, pp. 9 13.

5. Mineral Deposits and Industries of Estonia,” in CTR, No. 298462, December 17, 1928, p. 6; Kogerman, The Oil-Shale Industry of Estonia, p. 6.

6. Present Status of the Estonian Oil Shale Industry,” p. 18; “Mineral Deposits and Industries of Estonia,” p. 6; “Report, Estonian State Oil Shale Industry, 1928,” in “The Estonian State Oil Shale Industry in 1927,” in CTR, No. 290203, August 27, 1928, p. 2.

7. Riigi Polevkivitööstus, pp. 111112; “Mineral Deposits and Industries of Estonia,” pp. 7–8.

8. Present Status of the Estonian Oil Shale Industry,” pp. 7, 19; Kogerman, The Oil-Shale Industry of Estonia, p. 7.

9. Ibid., p. 6.

10. Kütte Jöud A. G., Annual Report, 1926,” in CTR, No. 25355, April 4, 1927, p. 19; “Mineral Deposits and Industries of Estonia,” p. 11.

11. CTR, No. 219766, April 16, 1926, p. 11.

12. Recent Developments in the Estonian Oil Shale Industry,” p. 5.

13. CTR, No. 219766, April 16, 1926, p. 12; CTR, No. 254555, July 5, 1927, p. 13.

14. Report, Estonian State Oil Shale Industry, 1928,” pp. 34; “Recent Developments in the Estonian Oil Shale Industry,” p. 6; Kogerman, The Oil-Shale Industry of Estonia, pp. 19–20.

15. Recent Developments in the Estonian Oil Shale Industry,” pp. 79.

16. Report, Estonian State Oil Shale Industry, 1928,” p. 8; “Recent Developments in the Estonian Oil Shale Industry,” p. 7.

17. Petroleum Refineries in Estonia,” CTR, No. 231433, November 23, 1926, p. 2; “Estonian Department of Commerce Information Sheet,” No. 10(June 16, 1928), in CTR, No. 287487, July 25, 1928, p. 3.

18. Riigi Polevkivitööstus, pp. 8497, 104–109.

19. Interview with Mr. H. Christenson, Sales Manager of Eestima Olikonsortsium,” and “Interview with Mr. M. Raud, Manager of the Estonian State Oil Shale Industry,” in “Production of Gasoline in Estonia,” CTR, No. 285431, July 17, 1928, pp. 34; “Recent Developments in the Estonian Oil Shale Industry,” p. 7.

20. Mineral Deposits and Industries of Estonia,” p. 15.

21. Recent Developments in the Estonian Oil Shale Industry,” p. 8; “Competition in the Estonian Gasoline Market,” CTR, No. 290343, August 30, 1928, pp. 2–3; CTR, No. 301750, January 25, 1925, p. 2.

22. Ibid., p. 10.

23. Ibid., p. 13.

24. CTR, No. 235355, April 4, 1927, p. 20.

25. Meerits-Carlson Conversation,” in CTR, No. 334477, April 7, 1930, p. 31.

26. Present Status of the Estonian Oil Shale Industry,” pp. 6, 1112.

27. Activities and Expansion of the Estonian Oil Industry,” in CTR, No. 58330, January 20, 1936, p. 3.

28. Monthly Review of the Estonian Review of Economic Research,” No. 11 (October, 1935), and “Monthly Review of the Estonian Review of Economic Research,” No. 1(January, 1936), in CTR, No. 58330, January 20, 1936, Enclosures 1 and 2.

29. Ibid., pp. 69.

30. Ibid., pp. 69.

31. Annual Report-Review of Estonia's Foreign Trade in 1933,” in CTR, No. 8540, January 23, 1934, p. 14; “Semi-Annual Economic Review, Estonia,” in CTR, No. 44861, July 8, 1935, pp. 19–20; “Semi-Annual Economic Review, Estonia,” in CTR, No. 62577, March 29, 1936, p. 5; “Estonia: Economic Report for the Week ended April 25, 1936,” in CTR, No. 64217, April 25, 1936, p. 3.

32. Estonia: Economic Report for the Week ended June 13, 1936,” in CTR, No. 67104, June 13, 1936, p. 3; “Estonia: Economic Report for the Week ended October 3, 1936,” in CTR, No. 74139, October 3, 1936, p. 4.

33. Estonia: Economic Review for the Week ended October 24, 1936,” in CTR, No. 75709, October 24, 1936, pp. 34; “Estonia: Economic Report for the Week ended June 13, 1936,” in CTR, No. 67104, June 15, 1936, pp. 2–3;, Speech, Estonian Minister of Economic Affairs, State Economic Council, December 15, 1936,” in “Annual Report on Commerce and Industries,” in CTR, No. 3113, January, 1937, pp. 3, 9.

34. Development of Estonian Oilshale Industry in 1937,” in CTR, No. 8315, April 2, 1938, pp. 34.

35. Villabaud Raud, Estonia: A Reference Book (New York: The Nordic Press, Inc., 1953), p. 153; “Development of Estonian Oilshale Industry in 1937,” pp. 4–5; “Annual Report on Commerce and Industries—Estonia,” in CTR, No. 3767, January 30, 1939, p. 7.

36. Economic Review for the Quarter ended June 30, 1938, Estonia,” in CTR, No. 14710, July 14, 1938, p. 2.

37. Paevaleht, November 5, 1938, in “Estonia, Economic Review for the Week ended November 12, 1938,” in CTR, No. 22670, November 14, 1938, p. 5; “Economic Review for the Quarter ended June 30, 1938, Estonia,” in CTR, No. 14710, July 14, 1938, pp. 2–3.

38. Report, First Estonian Oil Shale Industry,” in “Estonia: Economic Review for the Week ended June 11, 1938,” in CTR, No. 12970, June 11, 1938, p. 2; Paevaleht, July 9, 1938, in “Estonia: Economic Review for the Week ended July 10, 1938,” in CTR, No. 14553, July 11, 1938, p. 3; “Construction Activities in Estonia during the Second Half of 1938,” in CTR, No. 5929, February 28, 1939, p. 5.

39. Estonian Economic Review for the Quarter ended September 30, 1938,” in CTR, No. 20733, October 8, 1938, p. 2.

40. Annual Report on Commerce and Industries, Estonia, 1939,” in CTR, No. 4844, January 25, 1940, p. 24; “Report: The State Central Bureau of Statistics, Tallinn,” in CTR, No. 11295, April 16, 1940, p. 2.

41. Annual Report on Commerce and Industries, Estonia, 1939,” p. 14; “Estonian Economic Review for the Week ended September 9, 1939,” in CTR, No. 18619, September 9, 1939, p. 3.

42. Annual Report on Commerce and Industries, Estonia, 1939,” p. 3.

43. Estonian Economic Review for the Week ended November 25, 1939,” in CTR, No. 24998, November 29, 1939, p. 4; “Estonian Economic Review for the Week ended January 13, 1940,” in CTR, No 3883, January 13, 1940, pp. 1–2.

44. Estonian Economic Review for the Week ended July 8, 1939,” in CTR, No. 14487, July 10, 1939,” pp. 12; “Estonian Economic Review for the Week ended January 13, 1940,” pp. 1–2; “Estonian Economic Review for the Week ended February 17, 1940,” in CTR, No. 4873, February 17, 1940, pp. 3–4; “Estonian Economic Review for the Week ended March 9, 1940,” in CTR, No. 8570, March 9, 1940, p. 3.

45. Steinhardt to Hull, November 11, 1940, No. 1520, 86ON.51/8, pp. 23; Horm, p. 5.

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