In this paper, ferroelectric materials suitable for realizing high-density 1T1C-type (capacitor-type) FeRAM are first reviewed. It is found in BiFeO3(BFO) films formed by chemical solution deposition that leakage current density at a low electric field increases by substitution of Mn and Cr atoms for Fe atoms. But, it is also found that the breakdown characteristic is much improved by substitution of these atoms. Because of the better breakdown characteristic, the leakage current densities in the 3 and 5% Mn-substituted films are lower than that in an undoped BFO film at an applied electric field of 1MV/cm at room temperature, and thus well saturated hysteresis loops in P-E (polarization vs. electric field) characteristics are observed in these films.
Next, recent technological progress in transistor-type FeRAM, in which data are stored in a single ferroelectric-gate FET(field effect transistor), is discussed. It is demonstrated that the data retention time of ferroelectric-gate FETs is much improved by use of HfO2-based buffer layers which are inserted between the ferroelectric film and Si substrate for preventing interdiffusion of constituent elements. Particular attention is paid to FETs with a Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9/HfO2/Si gate structure, in which the data retention time longer than 30 days has been attained. Finally, the cell structure and operation principle of 1T (one transistor)-type FeRAM are discussed.