2.Bakke, J., Duebner, D., Manjure, D., and Rauch, L.: Evolution of the Grid in MISO Region (2017). Presentation, Slide 6, MISO, November 7, 2017. Avalable at: https://ccaps.umn.edu/documents/CPE-Conferences/MIPSYCON-PowerPoints/2017/GenTheEvolutionoftheGridintheMidcontinentIndependentSystemOperator(MISO)Region.pdf (accessed March 7, 2019). 3.Gimon, E., Orvis, R., and Aggarwale, S., and Curtailment, Renewables: What we can learn from grid operations in California and the Midwest. Green Tech Media, March 23, 2015. Available at: https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/renewables-curtailment-in-california-and-the-midwest-what-can-we-learn-from#gs.taUpPDo (accessed March 7, 2019).
6.Rocky Mountain Institute, Center for Energy & Environment. Slide presentation at meeting attended by author, 2017.
7.In Minnesota for example, distributed energy resources are defined at 10 MW or less: Interconnection of On-Site Distributed Generation, Minn. Stat. §216B. 1611 (September 28, 2004).
8.Bradley, M.J. and Associates: Powering into the Future—Renewable Energy & Grid Reliability, 17(23), 27–33 (2017).
14.Fitzgerald, G., Garrett, J.M., Morris, J., and Touati, H.: The Economics of Battery Energy Storage: How multi-use, customer-sited batteries deliver the most services and value to customers and the grid (2015). Rocky Mountain Institute, September 2015. Available at: https://rmi.org/insight/the-economics-of-battery-energy-storage-how-multi-use-customer-sited-batteries-deliver-the-most-services-and-value-to-customers-and-the-grid-executive-summary/ (accessed March 7, 2019). 17.Dyson, M. and Engel, A.: The Economics of Clean Energy Portfolios (2018). Webinar, Rocky Mountain Institute, July 3, 2018, used with permission. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2rWifsGqVh8 (accessed March 7, 2019). 21.We identified energy storage activity ranging from policy or regulatory initiatives to significant project deployment in the following states: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Colorado, Hawaii, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, District of Columbia. Sources: Energy Storage Association: State Policy Menu for Storage (2017). Available at: http://energystorage.org/statepolicymenu (accessed March 7, 2019); M. Jacobs: Energy Storage is the Policy Epicenter of Energy Innovation (2018). [Blog ]Union of Concerned Scientists, March 21, 2018. Available at: https://blog.ucsusa.org/mike-jacobs/energy-storage-policy-innovation (accessed March 7, 2019).
23.Forrester, S.: Policy and market barriers to energy storage providing multiple services. Electr. J. 30, 52 (2017).
31.158 FERC ¶ 61,051: .
47.Indianapolis Power & Light: The Challenges of Integrating Lithium Ion Energy Storage Res. with MISO Tariff, Business Practices, and Markets, 5 (July 26, 2017).
58.Burandt, B.: Is Energy Storage the Game Changer We’ve Been Looking for? Presentation, Slide 8, Frontiers on the Environment, February 23, 2017. Lecture video available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fb-GjxBxmHA (accessed March 7, 2019).
67.Galbraith, Sarah: Resilient Solar + Storage at Nature Center Improves Community and Economic Security.
70.Li, M., Smith, T.M., Yang, Y., and Wilson, E.J.: Marginal emission factors considering renewables: A case study of the U.S. Midcontinent independent system operator (MISO) system. Environ. Sci. Technol. 51, 19 (2017): 11215–11223.10.1021/acs.est.7b00034