Various fluorescent stains and vital dyes have been used to identify dead cells in animal tissues and celi lines. In plants, fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide have been used to label nuclei and to identify necrotic cells in plant protoplasts and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) has been used to mark senescing cells in sections of roots. However, these dyes may be problematic when used with intact plant tissue with well-developed cells walls which may impede dye penetration. Endogenous fluorescence has been used to identify dead cells in intact and sectioned plant tissues. Published procedures typically employ ultraviolet (UV) excitation wavelengths of 340-380 nm and emission wavelengths of 400- 425 nm, thus requiring a UV filter set.