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Interweaving Ideas and Patchwork Programmes: Nutrition Projects in Colonial Fiji, 1945–60

  • Sarah Clare Hartley (a1)

Abstract

The influence of a range of actors is discernible in nutrition projects during the period after the Second World War in the South Pacific. Influences include: international trends in nutritional science, changing ideas within the British establishment about state responsibility for the welfare of its citizens and the responsibility of the British Empire for its subjects; the mixture of outside scrutiny and support for projects from post-war international and multi-governmental organisations, such as the South Pacific Commission. Nutrition research and projects conducted in Fiji for the colonial South Pacific Health Service and the colonial government also sought to address territory-specific socio-political issues, especially Fiji’s complex ethnic poli,tics. This study examines the subtle ways in which nutrition studies and policies reflected and reinforced these wider socio-political trends. It suggests that historians should approach health research and policy as a patchwork of territorial, international, and regional ideas and priorities, rather than looking for a single causality.

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Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

* Email address for correspondence: sch511@york.ac.uk

Footnotes

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This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust [grant no. 097737/Z/11/Z]. I would also like to thank Margaret Jones, Adelheid Russenberger, Joanna Lunt and anonymous referees for their helpful comments on earlier drafts.

Footnotes

References

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1. Economic Advisory Council Committee on Nutrition in the Colonial Empire, copy of Despatch no. 43, 26 February 1937, with enclosure, from the Governor of Fiji, Interim Report on Nutrition in Fiji, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (henceforth LSHTM), Nutrition/17/05/02/01.

2. H.C. Luke, Governor of Fiji to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, 19 August 1940, LSHTM, Nutrition/17/05/02/01; Robert G. Bowman, ‘Army Farms and Agricultural Development in the Southwest Pacific’, Geographical Review, 36, 3 (1946), 423.

3. South Pacific Health Service (henceforth SPHS), Inspector-General’s Report 1st January 1946 to 30th September 1947, LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/01/01; S.G. Ross, ‘Pellagra in Fiji’, American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 30, 6 (November, 1950), 921–8; Muriel Bell and Lucy Wills, Report on Pilot Survey on State of Nutrition of Fijians and Indians in Fiji, January–February, 1950, The National Archives, Kew (henceforth TNA), CO859/232/6; P.E.C. Manson-Bahr, ‘Fijian Kwashiorkor’, Documenta de Medicina Geographica et Tropica, 4 (1952), 97–106.

4. Paper prepared for 10th Pacific Sciences Congress, ‘The Development in Nutrition Activities in Fiji 1920–60’, LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/02/05.

5. Collingham, Lizzie, The Taste of War: World War Two and the Battle for Food (London: Allen Lane, 2011), 397401.

6. Biraud, Yves M., ‘Health in Europe: A Survey of the Epidemic and Nutritional Situation’, Bulletin Health Organisation (League of Nations), 10, 4 (1943), 557699; Barona Vilar and Josep Lluis, The Problem of Nutrition: Experimental Science, Public Health, and Economy in Europe, 1914–45 (Brussels: Lang, 2010), 119–25.

7. World Health Organization Technical Report Series No. 16, Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee: Report on the First Session, Geneva, June 1950, 45–58.

8. The term ‘Indo-Fijian’ denotes people of Indian descent living in Fiji. During the Colonial period officials referred to this group variously as ‘Indians’ or ‘Fiji Indians’ or ‘Indian Fijians’. Due to continuing racial divides in Fiji, there remains political controversy over the term. ‘Indo-Fijian’ is used by academics Brij Lal and Adrian Mayer and has been selected because it clearly differentiates settled Fiji-born people of Indian descent from Indian-born migrants. The term ‘Fijian’ refers to iTaukei as it was officially, and is still commonly, the English term for the indigenous people of Fiji. ‘European’ will describe Caucasians including Australians, North Americans and New Zealanders, as this was the official term used in the Colonial period.

9. A.A.J. Jansen, Susan Parkinson and A.F.S. Robertson, Food and Nutrition in Fiji: A Historical Review, Vol. 1 (Suva: Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Fiji School of Medicine and the Institute of Pacific Studies of the University of the South Pacific, 1990).

10. Cameron-Smith, Alexander, ‘Australian Imperialism and International Health in the Pacific Islands’, Australian Historical Studies, 1, 41 (2010), 5774; Alexandra Widmer, ‘Native Medical Practitioners, Temporality, and Nascent Biomedical Citizenship in the New Hebrides’, Political and Legal Anthropology Review, 33 (2010), 57–80; Margaret Jolly, ‘Other Mothers: Maternal “Insouciance” and the Depopulation Debate in Fiji and Vanuatu, 1890–1930’, Maternities and Modernities: Colonial and Postcolonial Experiences in Asia and the Pacific (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 177–212.

11. Great Britain, Nutrition Policy in the Colonial Empire, Despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies 18 April 1936(London: H.M.S.O, 1936); Jansen, Parkinson and Robertson op. cit. (note 9), 399–406.

12. Gilks, J.L. and Boyd Orr, John, ‘The Nutritional Condition of the East African Native’, Lancet, 12 (1927), 560563; James Vernon, Hunger: A Modern History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 81–117; Paper prepared for 10th Pacific Sciences Congress, op. cit. (note 4); Jansen, Parkinson and Robertson op. cit. (note 9), 399–406; Iris Borowy, ‘International Social Medicine between the Wars: Positioning a Volatile Concept’, Hygiea Internationalis 6, 2 (2007), 24; Iris Borowy, Coming to Terms with World Health: The League of Nations Health Organisation 1921–46 (Brussels: Lang, 2009), 387–8.

13. Great Britain, Economic Advisory Council Committee on Nutrition in the Colonial Empire, First report: Part I, Nutrition in the Colonial Empire, 1938–9(Cambridge: ProQuest LLC, 2007), http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&res_dat=xri:hcpp&rft_dat=xri:hcpp:rec:1938-036300.

14. Colonial Office Memorandum quoted in Michael Ashley Havinden and David Meredith, Colonialism and Development: Britain and its Tropical Colonies, 1850–1960 (London: Routledge, 2002), 202.

15. Collingham, op. cit. (note 5), 397–401; Joseph Hodge, Gerald Hödl and Martina Kopf (eds), Developing Africa: Concepts and Practices in Twentieth-Century Colonialism (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2014), 14; Havinden and Meredith, ibid., 201–2.

16. Colonial Development and Welfare Bill’, Nature, 155(24 March 1945), 359.

17. Havinden and Meredith, op. cit. (note 14), 252–5.

18. Ibid., 256.

19. South Pacific Board of Health, ‘Minutes of the Meeting held at Suva, Fiji on the 13th, 14th and 15th June 1949’ (Fiji: Government Press), LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/01/01, 4; ‘Millions for Fiji, Plans for Development and Social Services’, Pacific Islands Monthly, November (1949), 31; ‘Fiji Progress, Governor Outlines Impressive Programme’, Pacific Islands Monthly, November (1946), 8.

20. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 29.

21. Ibid., 26–9.

22. Hodge, Hödl and Kopf (eds.), op. cit. (note 15), 15.

23. Great Britain, op. cit. (note 11), 186–201.

24. Falola, Toyin and Jennings, Christian, Sources and Methods in African History: Spoken, Written, Unearthed (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2003), 335346.

25. Platt, B.S., Nutrition in the British West Indies (London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1946).

26. ‘Obituary: Professor B.S. Platt’, Nature, 223 (1969), 873–4; Colonel W. Elliot, ‘Nutrition in Colonial Territories’, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 5, 1–2 (1946), 1–43.

27. M.W. Grant to G.H. Clark, 11 February 1952, TNA, CO1023/238.

28. C.H. Gurd, Physician Specialist, Colonial War Memorial Hospital, Suva, to Professor B.S. Platt, 2 March 1962, Nutrition/17/05/02/02; ‘Report of Visit to Five Fijian villages, an Agricultural Research Station and a Rural Market, by Professor B.S. Platt, L.P. Smith (Supervising Dietitian), District Nurse Siteri from Nausori, Assistant Medical Officer Inoke Qarau from Nausori’, 22 January 1962, LSHTM, Nutrition/17/05/02/03.

29. Roe, Daphne A., ‘Lucy Wills (1888–1964) A Biographical Sketch’, The Journal of Nutrition, 108, 9 (1978), 1379.

30. Hansard Commons Debate, 13 July 1943, vol. 391 cc47–151.

31. Australian Treaty Series 1944 No. 2, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Canberra, Australian–New Zealand Agreement 1944 (Canberra, 21 January 1944), clauses 28–30; W.D. Forsyth, ‘The South Pacific Commission’, Far Eastern Survey, 18, 5 (9 March 1949), 56–8.

32. Charter of the United Nations (26 June 1945) Chapter XI; Australian Treaty Series 1944 No. 2, ibid., clauses 28–30; Forsyth, ibid., 56–8; Ernst B. Haas, ‘The Attempt to Terminate Colonialism: Acceptance of the United Nations Trusteeship System’, International Organization, 7, 1 (1953), 1–21.

33. Charter of the United Nations, Chapter XI, Article 73, a.

34. Ibid., Article 73, d.

35. Constitution of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (Quebec, 16 October 1945), Preamble, 1.

36. Constitution of the United Nations World Health Organization (New York, 22 July 1946), 2–3.

37. Charter of the United Nations, Chapter XI, Article 73, b.

38. Charter of the United Nations, Chapter XIII, Articles 86-91; ‘Trusteeship Council’, United Nations (accessed 21 November 2016), http://www.un.org/en/sections/about-un/trusteeship-council/index.html; United Kingdom High Commissioner in New Zealand, Wellington Conference, 11.30 am, 7 November 1944 and Agreement between Australia and New Zealand signed at Canberra 21 January 1944, 1943/44, TNA, DO114/118; Huntington Gilchrist, ‘V. Colonial Questions at the San Francisco Conference’, American Political Science Review, 39, 5 (1945): 982–92; Alexander Hugh McDonald, Trusteeship in the Pacific (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1949), 20–4; Haas, op. cit. (note 32), 1–21.

39. Australian Treaty Series 1944 No. 2, op. cit. (note 31), clause 31; ‘Six Nations Pledged to New Deal in South Pacific’, Advocate (Burnie, Tas: 7 February 1947), 5, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article68987905 (accessed 17 June 2015); ‘Six Nations Meet to Plan Advancement of South Pacific Peoples: South Seas Agreement Drawn up and Signed’, Advocate (Burnie, Tas: 7 February 1947), 5, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article68987905 (accessed 17 June 2015).

40. Dr Herbert Evatt quoted in ‘Six Nations Pledged to New Deal in South Pacific’, Advocate (Burnie, Tas: 7 February 1947), 5, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article68987905p (accessed 17 June 2015); Gregory Fry, ‘The South Pacific “Experiment”: Reflections on the Origins of Regional Identity’, The Journal of Pacific History, 32, 2 (1997), 183–4.

41. ‘Six Nations Pledged to New Deal in South Pacific’, Advocate, op. cit. (note 39), 5; ‘Great Gathering In Suva For Talks On The Pacific’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 April (1950), 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18157419 (accessed 16 June 2015); ‘A Five Year Plan To Develop The South Pacific’, The Sydney Morning Herald 23 May (1950), 2, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18169104 (accessed 16 June 2015); ‘Commentary: SPC: Make it of Some Real Use, Or Kill It!’ Pacific Islands Monthly, March (1959), 25.

42. ‘South Pacific Commission’, International Organization, 2, 3 (1948), 549–50.

43. ‘Minutes of the Meeting held at Suva, Fiji on the 13th, 14th and 15th June 1949’, op. cit. (note 19), 5.

44. Padelford, Norman J., ‘Regional Cooperation in the South Pacific: Twelve Years of the South Pacific Commission’, International Organization, 13, 3 (1959), 382, 390.

45. Miss Malcolm to Mr Maude and Dr Loison, Health Section of the South Pacific Commission, 25 August 1952, TNA, CO1009/146.

46. Extract from SPC Progress Report No. 11, 1 April–31 August, 1952, LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/01/03.

47. South Pacific Commission, ‘Report on the Follow-up of the SPC/WHO Health Education Training Course, prepared by A.L. Scherzer and E.L. Massal’ (Nouméa: South Pacific Commission, 1958); TNA, CO1009/578.

48. World Health Organization, June 1950, op. cit. (note 7); World Health Organization Technical Report Series No. 44, Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee: Report on the Second Session (Geneva: WHO, 1951); World Health Organization, The First Ten Years of the World Health Organization (Geneva: WHO, 1958), 309–24.

49. World Health Organization, The First Ten Years, ibid., 310–16.

50. Dr Cicely Williams went on from her career in the colonial medical service to be the first head of the maternal and child health section of the WHO in 1948. The WHO/FAO came under criticism in the 1970s for treating caloric deficiencies as of secondary importance despite mounting evidence that they were a serious problem, starting with Donald S. Maclaren, ‘The Great Protein Fiasco’, The Lancet, 304, 7872 (1974): 93–6.

51. John Carpenter, Kenneth, Protein and Energy: A Study of Changing Ideas in Nutrition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 142160.

52. Ibid., 149–59.

53. Ritchie, Jean, Learning Better Nutrition: A Second Study of Approaches and Techniques (Rome: FAO, 1967), 7476.

54. Ritchie, Jean, Teaching Better Nutrition: A Study of Approaches and Techniques (Washington: FAO, 1950), 6970; Marjorie Scott, School Feeding: Its Contribution to Child Nutrition (Rome: FAO, 1953).

55. Semba, Richard D., ‘The Rise and Fall of Protein Malnutrition in Global Health’, Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 69, 2 (2016), 7988.

56. Jolly, op. cit. (note 10), 177–212.

57. Mein Smith, Philippa, ‘New Zealand Milk for “Building Britons”’, Medicine and Colonial Identity (London & New York: Routledge, 2003), 79102; R.D. Apple, ‘A Century of Infant Feeding in the United States and New Zealand’, Occasional Papers on Medical History Australia, 6 (1992), 303–10; Glenda Mather, ‘Bringing up Baby: 1950s Maternal and Infant Nutrition Programmes’, Outskirts Online Journal, 7 (November 2000),http://www.outskirts.arts.uwa.edu.au/volumes/volume-7/mather.

58. South Pacific Commission to Brigadier H.J.M. Flaxman, British Resident Commissioner, New Hebrides, 18 January 1951, TNA, CO1009/146.

59. Memorandum, Lectures and Posters on Nutrition, prepared by Dr E. Massal and Miss S. Malcolm, TNA, CO1009/146; Dr Guy Loison, ‘International Seminar on Health Education’, South Pacific Commission BulletinApril (1956), 29–32.

60. Project No. H2 and H5: Diet and Nutrition, 1950–5, TNA, CO1009/146.

61. Norman-Taylor, W., ‘The Advance of Public Health’, South Pacific Commission Bulletin, October (1960), 66–8.

62. Ibid., 67.

63. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition, ‘Report on the Second Session, Rome, 10–17 April 1951’, 29–33; United Nations, Formulation and Economic Appraisal of Development Projects: Lectures delivered at the Asian Centre on Agricultural and Allied Projects, Training Institute on Economic Appraisal of Development Projects, Lahore, Pakistan, October–December 1950, Vol. 2 (Lahore: United Nations Technical Assistance Administration, 1951) 515–51, 569–75.

64. The Times (London: Thursday, 13 June 1957), Issue 53866, 9.

65. Extract from Policy in Fiji note by Mr Amery, Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State to the Colonies, 8 November 1960, TNA, CO1036/811; Documents 5–8 in Brij V. Lal, Fiji (London: TSO, 2006), 132–79.

66. Howard, Michael C., Fiji: Race and Politics in an Island State (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1991); Brij V. Lal, Broken Waves a History of the Fiji Islands in the Twentieth Century (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1992); Robert Norton, ‘Accommodating Indigenous Privilege: Britain’s Dilemma in Decolonising Fiji’, The Journal of Pacific History, 37, 2 (2002), 133–56; Steven Ratuva, ‘Proto-Affirmative Action: Indigenous Fijian Development from Cession to Independence’, The Politics of Preferential Development: Trans-Global Study of Affirmative Action and Ethnic Conflict in Fiji, Malaysia and South Africa (Canberra: ANU Press, 2013), 11–29, http://press.anu.edu.au?p=245891.

67. Lal, Brij V., Historical Dictionary of Fiji (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015), xxiii.

68. Ibid., xxxii–xxxv, 154, 185.

69. Professor O.H.K. Spate ‘Time for Tapa Curtain to be Taken Down’, TNA, CO1036/811; ‘Fiji Talanoa, Vakatawa talks of This and That, Fiji Land and Deed of Cession’, Pacific Islands Monthly, April (1959), 49.

70. 3 756 000 acres of Fijian communal land, 447 000 acres of private freehold, 215, 500 acres of Crown protected land and 12 000 acres of Fijian freehold, O.H.K. Spate, The Fijian People: Economic Prospects and Problems, a Report (Suva, 1959), para 29.

71. Lal, op. cit. (note 67), 63.

72. Ibid., 9.

73. Cato, A.C., ‘Fijians and Indo-Fijians: A Culture Contact Problem in the South Pacific’, Oceania, 26 (January 1955), 1617.

74. Lal, op. cit. (note 66), 86–95.

75. ‘Indian Cry for Land is Fiji’s most Pressing Problem’, Pacific Islands Monthly, November (1946), 11; ‘Over Quarter of a Million People now in Fiji’, Pacific Islands Monthly, April (1947), 17; ‘Governor warns Fiji Indians of Over-Population Peril: Britain will maintain Pledges given to Fijians’, Pacific Islands Monthly, August (1949), 9, 91.

76. Fiji, A Report on the Results of the Census of Population, 1946 (Suva: Fiji, 1947); Colonial Office Notes, 17 December 1952, TNA, CO1023/212; Document 7 in Lal, op. cit. (note 65), 23; ‘Growing hold of Indians on Fiji’s Economic Life’, Pacific Islands Monthly, September (1949), 59.

77. Based on birth rate and population from Rajesh Chandra and Jenny Bryant-Tokalau, Population of Fiji (Nouméa, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission, 1990); infant mortality from, Fiji: Economic Development of the People, 1951–4, TNA, CO1023/172, 1951; Mrs Ena Compton, ‘Report of Survey into the Need for Family Planning in the Pacific Islands of Fiji, Tonga, Niue & Eastern & Western Samoa, August 1957’, no page numbers, TNA, CO1036/431.

78. Annual report on Fiji (London: TSO, 1948–60).

79. Annual report on Fiji (London: TSO, 1960).

80. Total population of Fiji grew from 260 468 in 1946 to 401 018 in 1960, Annual Report on Fiji (London: TSO, 1948–60).

81. Spate, op. cit. (note 70), para 29; Fiji: Proposed Commission of Enquiry to Investigate Population Problems, 1952–3, TNA, CO1023/212; A Plan of Operation for a Market Study to be done in the Colony of Fiji, 1960, LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/06.

82. Fiji: Proposed Commission of Enquiry, ibid.; Burn’s Commission, 1960–2, TNA, CO1036/811.

83. Economic Advisory Council Committee, op. cit. (note 1).

84. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), Appendix 3.

85. Stuart, Annie, ‘Contradictions and Complexities in an Indigenous Medical Service’, The Journal of Pacific History, 41, 2 (2006), 125143; South Pacific Board of Health, ‘Minutes of the Meeting held at Suva, Fiji on the 25th, 28th and 31st October 1946’ (Fuji: Government Press), LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/01/01, 1.

86. Ibid.

87. Ibid.; British territories: Fiji, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, British Solomon Islands protectorate, the New Hebrides and Pitcairn Island and Tonga (protectorate). New Zealand dependencies: Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Western Samoa.

88. Inspector-General’s Report 1st January 1946 to 30th September 1947, op. cit. (note 3), 5–6.

89. South Pacific Board of Health, ‘Minutes of the Meeting held at Suva, Fiji on the 20th, 21st, 24th and 27th October 1947’ (Fuji: Government Press), LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/01/01.

90. Jansen, Parkinson and Robertson, op. cit. (note 9), 340–9; Inspector-General’s Report 1st January 1946 to 30th September 1947, op. cit. (note 3), 5–6.

91. ‘Minutes of the meeting held at Suva, Fiji on the 13th, 14th and 15th June 1949’, op. cit. (note 19), 4.

92. Inspector-General’s Report 1st January, 1946 to 30th September, 1947, op. cit. (note 3), 5–6.

93. Ibid., 5–6; Muriel E. Bell, ‘A Nutrition Officer’s Experiences Visiting the Southwest Pacific Islands’, Nutrition Reviews, 14, 2 (1956), 35.

94. Inspector-General’s Report 1st January, 1946 to 30th September, 1947, op. cit. (note 3), 8.

95. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3); Bell, op. cit. (note 93), 33.

96. Philippa Mein Smith, ‘Bell, Muriel Emma’, The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Te Ara – The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 5 June 2013, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/biographies/4b21/bell-muriel-emma/(accessed 28 April 2016).

97. Smith, ibid.; Katherine Keller, Encyclopedia of Obesity (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008), 68.

98. Bastian, H., ‘Lucy Wills (1888–1964): The Life and Research of an Adventurous Independent Woman’, The Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 38, 1 (2008), 8991.

99. Jennifer Smyth and John Davies, ‘The Dentist Who Professed that Prevention was far better than Cure’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 26 February (2010), http://www.smh.com.au/comment/obituaries/the-dentist-who-professed-that-prevention-was-far-better-than-cure-20100225-p5sr.html#ixzz477yIUisd(accessed 28 April 2016); G. N. Davies, ‘Pukapuka Research Expedition, 1950–1’, LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/02/10.

100. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 23, Table 2.

101. Ibid., 23, Table 2.

102. Tropical Food and Nutrition, Quarterly Pamphlet Issues by the SPHS, LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/01/03.

103. These figures excluded patients selected by local health sisters for pathological diagnosis. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 22.

104. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 25.

105. G.N. Davies, ‘A Report on the Dental Status of Native Fijians’, LSHTM, Nutrition/17/05/02/13, 1.

106. G.N. Davies, ‘A Report on the Dental Status of Native Fijians’, Part Two, 23, 1950, TNA, CO1023/238.

107. Davies, op. cit. (note 105), 1; M.W. Grant to G.H. Clark, 11 February 1952, TNA, CO1023/238.

108. Smith, op. cit. (note 96).

109. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 23; Bell, op. cit. (note 93), 34.

110. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 23.

111. Ibid., 26–7.

112. Ibid., 23.

113. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition: Report on the Second Session, Rome, 10–17 April 1951; Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition: third report of a meeting held in Fajara, Gambia, from 28 November to 3 December 1952; Smith, op. cit. (note 96).

114. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 26–7.

115. Ibid., 26.

116. Jansen, Parkinson and Robertson, op. cit. (note 9), 349–50.

117. Buchanan, J.C.R., A Guide to Pacific Island Dietaries (Wellington (NZ): H.H. Tombs, 1947), 47; Susan Holmes quoted in ‘Protein Malnutrition, Problem and Prevention in South and East Asia’, South Pacific Commission Bulletin, October (1953), 17, 23.

118. Doreen Langley, ‘Report on Dietary Survey, Naduri, Sigatoka, June–July 1952’, no page numbers, LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/06.

119. Ibid., no page numbers.

120. C.H. Gurd, Physician Specialist, Colonial War Memorial Hospital to Professor BS Platt, 2 March 1962, LSHTM, Nutrition/17/05/02/02.

121. Buchanan, op. cit. (note 117), 47; similar view expressed by C.H. Gurd, Physician Specialist, Colonial War Memorial Hospital to Professor B.S. Platt, 2 March 1962, LSHTM, Nutrition/17/05/02/02.

122. SPHS, English Translation of Fijian ‘Infant Feeding Booklet’, 1958, LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/02/14.

123. M.W. Grant to G.H. Clark, 11 February 1952, TNA, CO1023/238.

124. Raphael, Dana, International Conference on Human Lactation, Breastfeeding and Food Policy in a Hungry World (New York: Academic Press, 1979), 256.

125. M.W. Grant to G.H. Clark, 11 February 1952, TNA, CO1023/238.

126. SPHS, English Translation of Fijian, op cit. (note 122); English Translation of Hindi ‘Infant Feeding Booklet’, 1958, LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/02/14.

127. SPHS, English Translation of Fijian, op cit. (note 122), 24; English Translation of Hindi, op. cit. (note 126), 18–21.

128. SPHS, English Translation of Hindi, op. cit. (note 126), 18.

129. SPHS, English Translation of Fijian, op cit. (note 122), 21–3.

130. Ibid., 7–8; English Translation of Hindi, op. cit. (note 126), 8.

131. Inspector-General’s Report 1956/7 (Suva, Fiji: Government House, 1957), LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/01/01, 23.

132. Recommendations on Health Projects H2. & 5: Nutrition including Infant Feeding, RC. 3/34/Rev.1, 25 June 1951, LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/01/01.

133. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 24.

134. Ibid., 23–4.

135. Ibid., 24.

136. Davies, op. cit. (note 106), 8, 22.

137. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 25.

138. Ibid., 26–7.

139. Ibid., 27, 29.

140. Ibid., 29.

141. ‘Fiji Maintains Trade with NZ’, Pacific Islands Monthly, June (1947), 60; ‘Higher Price for Fiji Bananas in NZ’, Pacific Islands Monthly, April (1950), 37; ‘A Brief Lesson in Banana Importing: Simple and Easy He Says! But Has He Tried it?’, Pacific Islands Monthly, April (1959), 31; ‘Diseases and Australians seen as a Threat to Islands’ Banana Markets’, Pacific Islands Monthly, November (1964), 9.

142. Introductory Notes for a Symposium concerning Problems of Applied Nutrition in the Pacific Islands (for 10th Pacific Science Congress), 1961, LSHTM, Nutrition/17/05/02/08; Jansen, Parkinson and Robertson, op. cit. (note 6), 359.

143. Jansen, Parkinson and Robertson, op. cit. (note 9), 359.

144. Payne, W.J.A., ‘Sigatoka Agricultural Station: 2’, South Pacific Commission Bulletin, July (1955), 27.

145. ‘Nutrition: Dental Conditions in Fiji’, Council Paper No. 14, Legislative Council Fiji, 1941, 3, TNA, CO/859/67/11; Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 25; Davies, op. cit. (note 106), 15.

146. Davies, op. cit. (note 106), 4.

147. ‘Nutrition: Dental Conditions in Fiji’, op. cit. (note 145).

148. Ibid., 2–3.

149. Ibid., 3.

150. Davies, op. cit. (note 106), 8–9.

151. ‘Nutrition: Dental Conditions in Fiji’, op. cit. (note 145), 2.

152. Davies, op. cit. (note 106), 8–9.

153. Davies, op. cit. (note 106), 23.

154. Doreen Langley, Report on Dietary Survey, Naduri, Sigatoka, 1952/3, no page numbers, Nutrition 17/05/06.

155. A Plan of Operation for a Market Study to be done in the Colony of Fiji, LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/06; South Pacific Commission: Nutrition Programmes, 1955–62, TNA, CO1009/578.

156. Davies, op. cit. (note 105), 5–7.

157. Ibid., 5–7.

158. Ibid., 5–7.

159. Bell, op. cit. (note 93), 33.

160. Doreen Langley, ‘Report on Second Dietary Survey, Naduri, Sigatoka, January, 1953’, no page numbers, LSHTM, Nutrition 17/05/06.

161. Davies, op. cit. (note 105), 14.

162. Smith, op. cit. (note 96); Smyth and Davies, op. cit. (note 99).

163. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 22.

164. Ibid., 22.

165. Ibid., 22.

166. Ibid., 27.

167. M.W. Grant to G.H. Clark, 11 February 1952, TNA, CO1023/238.

168. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 23, Appendix 3. Roe, op. cit. (note 29), 1379–83.

169. Carleen O’Loughlin and Susan Holmes ‘A Survey of Economic and Nutritional Conditions in Indian Households (in Fiji)’ (May 1954), 20, LSHTM, Nutrition/17/05/02/11.

170. Ibid., 20.

171. O’Loughlin and Holmes, op. cit. (note 169), 20.

172. Ibid., 20.

173. Jimaima T. Schultz and Penina T. Vatuwaqa, ‘Impact of Fortified Flour in Childbearing Age Women in Fiji 2010 report’ (Suva, Fiji: National Food and Nutrition Centre, March 2012), 1.

174. Part of thesis in progress by the author titled ‘Feeding Health: The Politics of Health Education and Family Planning in Fiji 1945–74’, University of York.

175. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), 25.

176. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition, Report on the First Session, Geneva 24–8 October 1949 (Geneva: WHO, 1950), 13; World Health Organization Technical Report Series No. 97. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee: Fourth Report (Geneva: WHO, 1955), 39–41.

177. M.K. Chandulal, ‘Goitre in Sigatoka, Fiji’, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dissertation, Medical school, University of Otago, 1956, no page numbers, LSHTM, Nutrition/17/05/02/03.

178. Ibid.

179. Ibid.

180. Ibid.

181. Inspector-General’s Report 1956/7, op. cit. (note 131), 22; Introductory Notes for a Symposium, op. cit. (note 142).

182. O’Loughlin and Holmes, op. cit. (note 169), 1, 3.

183. Ibid., 2.

184. Ibid., 7–8.

185. Bell and Wills, op. cit. (note 3), Appendix 3.

186. Jansen, Parkinson and Robertson, op. cit. (note 9).

187. Lal, op. cit. (note 66); Norton, op. cit. (note 66), 133–56; Howard, op. cit. (note 66); Ratuva, op. cit. (note 66).

This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust [grant no. 097737/Z/11/Z]. I would also like to thank Margaret Jones, Adelheid Russenberger, Joanna Lunt and anonymous referees for their helpful comments on earlier drafts.

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