Zheng, Yangwen, The Social Life of Opium in China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 20–24; Hans Derks, History of the Opium Problem: The Assault on the East (Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2012).
Dally, Ann, ‘Anomalies and Mysteries in the “War on Drugs”’, in Porter, Roy and Teich, Mikulas (eds), Drugs and Narcotics in History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 199–215.
Levy, Jay, The War on People Who Use Drugs: The Harm of Sweden’s Aim for a Drug-Free Society (London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2018).
Dikötter, Frank, Laamann, Lars and Xun, Zhou (eds), Narcotic Culture: A History of Drugs in China (London: Hurst; Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2004).
Newman, Richard, ‘Early British Encounters with the Indian Opium Eater’, in Mills, J. and Barton, P. (eds), Drugs and Empires: Essays in Modern Imperialism and Intoxication (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), 57–59; John Richards, ‘Opium and the British Indian Empire: the Royal Commission of 1895’, Modern Asian Studies, 36 (2002), 375–420.
Mars, Sarah G., ‘Ambiguous Justice: The General Medical Council and Dr Ann Dally’, in Mars, Sarah G. (ed.), The Politics of Addiction: Medical Conflict and Drug Dependence in England since the 1960s (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), 65–88.
Hari, Johann, Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs (London and New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015).
For this methodology, readers can also refer to a review article by Courtwright, David T., ‘Drug Wars: Policy Hots and Historical Cools’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 78, 2 (2004), 440–450.
Yue-wo Wong, John, ‘Lun fengke de yapian zange ji qita’ (On Frank Dikötter’s Paean of Opium and Other Notes), Bulletin of the Institute of Modern History Academia Sinica, 47 (2005), 225–232.
Kleineke, Hannes, ‘The Records of the Common Law as a Source for the Medieval Medical History of England’, Social History of Medicine, 30, 3 (2017), 483–499.
Weimin, Bao (ed.), Longquan sifa dangan xuanbian
(Selections of Judicial Records in Longquan) (Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, 2012); enlarged edition in 2014.
Zhang, Zhiwei and Mao, Qiongjie, ‘Longquan sifa dangan zhengli yu yanjiu xiangmu gaishu’ (An Overview of the Programme on the Edit and Research of Judicial Records of Longquan), Zhejiang dangan, 5 (2015), 22–24.
Guo, Zuotang, ‘Wuwangji dongyang jinyandu’ (Wu Wangji’s Anti-Drug Actions in Dongyang District), in bianjibu, Wenshijinghua (ed.), Jindai zhongguo yandu xiezhen (Portraits of Narcotics in Modern China) (Shijiazhuang: Hebei renmin chubanshe, 1997), 408.
In rare cases, this word referred to tobacco, but these do not occur in the Judicial Records of Longquan.
Scholars in Zhejiang University made an electronic summary for every case recorded in the Judicial Records of Longquanaccording to the information in their cover pages. This summary still remains as an unpublished version in the Center for Edit and Research of Local Historical Documents, Zhejiang University; date of viewing: 4 July 2017.
Anderson, S. and Berridge, V., ‘Drug Misuse and the Community Pharmacist: A Historical Overview’, in Sheridan, J. and Strang, J. (eds), Drug Misuse and Community Pharmacy (London: Taylor and Francis, 2003), 47–62; Howard Padwa, Social Poison: The Culture and Politics of Opiate Control in Britain and France, 1921–26 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012).
Shirong, Lin (ed.), Longquan xianzhi
(Records of Longquan District) (Shanghai: Hanyu dacidian chubanshe, 1994), 573–574; these archive materials also record that most herbs were ‘transported from Wenzhou through waterways’ (Duocong shuilu cong wenzhou goujin, p. 590), reminding us that the herbs and narcotics may have been transported together from Wenzhou to Longquan.
Gao, Xi, ‘The Truth and Evils of Opium: The Anti-opium Activities of British Missionary to China John Dudgeon’, Frontiers of History in China, 5, 3 (2010), 453–470; Kathleen L. Lodwick, Crusaders against Opium: Protestant Missionaries in China, 1874–1917 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1996).
Frank Dikötter, Lars Laamann and Zhou Xun (eds), op. cit. (note 4).
Tao, Kangde, Yapian zhi jinxi
(The Past and Present of Opium) (Shanghai: Yuzhou fengshe, 1937), 63. Another substitute is heroin. According to memoirs, one hundred ounces of heroin can meet the requirements of ten thousands of drug takers after blending with other substances. See Cheng Weirong (ed.), Transcripts of the Proceedings of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (Beijing: Guojia tushuguan chubanshe; Shanghai: Shanghai jiaotong daxue chubanshe, 2013), 4407–23.
Zhou, Yongming, Anti-Drug Crusades in Twentieth-century China: Nationalism, History, and State Building (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999), 25–32.
Madancy, Joyce A., The Troublesome Legacy of Commissioner Lin: The Opium Trade and Opium Suppression in Fujian Province, 1820s to 1920s (Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2004), 339–372.
Based on the abovementioned cases, the diversification of drug colours in Longquan mainly happened after 1930. A report of customs tariffs in 1928 also shows this phenomenon in Shanghai; see Han, Yongjin and Wang, Jianlang (eds), Minguo wenxian leibian: jingji juan
(Documents of the Republic of China: Economy Category), vol. 526 (Beijing: Guojiatushuguan chubanshe, 2015), 194.
Edelman, Gerda, Lopatka, Martin and Aalders, Maurice, ‘Objective Color Classification of Ecstasy Tablets by Hyperspectral Imaging’, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58, 4 (2013), 881–886.
Ferlanti, Federica, ‘The New Life Movement in Jiangxi Province, 1934–38’, Modern Asian Studies, 44, 5 (2010), 961–1000.
Wong, R. Bin, ‘Opium and Modern Chinese State-Making’, in Brook, Timothy and Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi (eds), Opium Regimes: China, Britain and Japan, 1839–1952 (Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2000), 189–211.
Peng, Shanhou, ‘Chafeng jiangjieshi de mafeigongchang yian zhenxiang’ (The Truth of Closing Down Chiang Kai-shek’s Morphine Factory), in bianjibu, Wenshijinghua (ed.), Jindai zhongguo yandu xiezhen , 432–435.
Slack, Edward R., Opium, State and Society: China’s Narco-Economy and the Kuomindang, 1924–37 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001).
Yuezhi, Xiong (ed.), Xijian shanghai shizhi ziliao congshu
(Collection of Rare Historical Sources of Shanghai City) (Shanghai: Shanghai shudian chubanshe, 2012), 701–702.
Snelders, Stephen, Kaplan, Charles and Pieters, Toine, ‘On Cannabis, Chloral Hydrate, and Career Cycles of Psychotropic Drugs in Medicine’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 80, 1 (2006), 95–114.
Rogaski, Ruth, Hygienic Modernity: Meanings of Health and Disease in Treaty-Port China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004), 2.
Bodenhorn, Terry (ed.), Defining Modernity: Kuomindang Rhetorics of a New China (Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002).
Paulès, Xavier, ‘La lutte contre l’opium, panacée politique pour le Kuomindang?’, Vingtième siècle, 95 (2007), 193–217.
Hongli, Xie (ed.), Zhejiang yixue shi
(History of Medicine in Zhejiang Province) (Beijing: Renmin weisheng chubanshe, 2016), 316; Table 7-2-2.
Deming, Zhu, Zhejiang yiyao shi
(The History of Medicine and Pharmacy in Zhejiang Province) (Renmin junyi chubanshe: Beijing, 1999), 70–72.
Morar, Florin-Stefan, ‘The Coldness and Hotness of Opium’, American Association for the History of Medicine 2014 Annual Meeting (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2014); Heong Hong Por ‘Where Are the Boundaries of Narcotics and Medicines: The Question of Traditional Medicine to Malaysian Drug Regulations’, Youth Academic Forum of Insti tute for History of Natural Sciences, CAS (Beijing: Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2017).
Shapin, S., ‘Discipline and Bounding: The History and Sociology of Science as Seen through the Externalism-Internalism Debate’, History of Science: An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching, 30, 4 (1992), 333–369.
Marshalla, Mac, Ames, Genevieve M. and Bennett, Linda A., ‘Anthropological Perspectives on Alcohol and Drugs at the Turn of the New Millennium’, Social Science and Medicine, 53, 2 (2001), 153–164.