A revision of the Lecanora saligna-group is provided, based on specimens mainly from western and central Europe. Four new Lecanora species related to L. saligna are described: L. calabrica, L. coppinsii, L. pseudosarcopidoides and L. subsaligna, as well as a new variety, L. albellula var. macroconidiata. The species treated have in common relatively short and ± curved or bacilliform conidia and/or isousnic acid as a secondary metabolite. Species without isousnic acid, containing exclusively filiform conidia are excluded. Notes on various types of conidia (macroconidia, microconidia, mesoconidia and leptoconidia), morphology, ecology, chemistry and distribution are given and a key to the treated species is provided. Detailed descriptions are presented for eight related species in order to highlight the distinguishing characters.