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Two new species of Mycobilimbia are described from Spain. Mycobilimbia olwacea has a minutely squamulose and olivaceous thalli and dark reddish brown apothecia, colourless inside; it has been found at middle to high altitudes (from 900 to 1750 m), growing on humid tree bases of Pinus nigra and lignum of Quercus pyrenaica. Mycobilimbia parvilobulosa is closely related to M. berengeriana, but differs markedly by its squamulose thalli, with crenate to subdigitiform margins, dark reddish brown excipulum and colourless epithecium. It grows on moss-covered old trunks of fagaceous trees. The new taxa are compared with M. berengeriana, M. hypnorum and M. sanguineoatra and their main distinguishing characters are tabulated.
The African continent is shown to contain only 38 species in the lichen family Pannariaceae, all of which are listed in the conclusion. Four new species are described: Pannaria planiuscula (Republic of South Africa [RSA] and Kenya), Pannaria squamulosa (RSA), Parmeliella dactylifera (RSA), and Parmeliella triptophylloides (Kenya). Four species are recorded as new to the continent: Pannaria centrifuga P.M. Jørg. (RSA), Pannaria ramosii Vain. (Tanzania), Parmeliella imbricatula (Müll. Arg.) P. M. Jørg. (RSA), and Psoroma fruticulosum James & Henssen (RSA). The following taxa described from Africa prove to be synonyms: Pannaria cameroonensis Dodge (=Parmeliella stylophora), Pannaria capensis Stirt. (= P. lurida), Pannaria leucosticta var. isidiopsis Nyl. (= P. globigera), Pannaria pityrella Stirt. (= Coccocarpia stellata), and Pannaria thoroldii Dodge (= Parmeliella mariana). Three species have been incorrectly recorded from Africa: Pannaria fulvescens, Parmeliella nigrocincra and Parmeliella triptophylla.
The paper deals with six species of Parmotrema from India. Parmotrema awasthii Divakar & Upreti and Parmotrema upretii Divakar are described as new to science. Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, P. ravum (Krog & Swinscow) Sérus., P. stuhlmannii (C.W. Dodge) Krog & Swinscow and P. tsavoense (Krog & Swinscow) Krog & Swinscow, are new records for the Indian lichen flora.
The phylogeny of the genus Diploschistes was investigated using nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ITS rDNA region (ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S rDNA). Sequences of 22 Diploschistes species were aligned to those of six other species of Thelotremataceae, Graphis scripta and Aspicilia cinerea, with the last used as an outgroup. The alignment was analysed cladistically using maximum parsimony. In the most parsimonious trees, Diploschistes is monophyletic, with D. ocellatus being a sister group to the remaining Diploschistes spp. (= Diploschistes s. str.). A previous cladistic analysis of morphological data suggested an evolutionary trend within the genus from perithecioid to urceolate ascomata. The present ITS data suggest the opposite: perithecioid ascomata are apparently an apomorphic character within the genus, with the actinostomus group forming a derived monophyletic clade. However, the topology within Diploschistes s. str. Lacks strong bootstrap support.
Takhtajan's floristic regions of the world, based on vascular plant distribution, were used for a comparative analysis of foliicolous lichen biogeography. Of the 35 regions distinguished by that author, 23 feature foliicolous lichens. The South-East African, Fijian, Polynesian and Hawaiian regions lack sufficient information and were excluded from further analysis. Using multi-dimensional scaling and cluster and cladistic analyses, the remaining 19 regions were grouped into six lichenogeographical regions: (1) Neotropics, (2) African Paleotropics (including Madagascar, Réunion and Seychelles), (3) Eastern Paleotropics (including North-East Australia and New Caledonia), (4) Valdivian region (temperate rainforest in southern South America), (5) Tethyan region (subtropical areas of Macaronesia, Mediterranean, and Western Irano-Turanian) and (6) Neozealandic-Tasmanian region (temperate rainforests of New Zealand and Tasmania). Affinities between these six large scale regions, with 57–77% shared species, are still stronger than those between the 35 smaller scale regions denned by Takhtajan [(20−)40–60(−75)% shared species]. Based on presence/absence within each of the six regions, 22 potential distribution patterns were defined for foliicolous lichens. Many species are widely distributed; 21% are cosmopolitan or pantropical, while 19% are disjunct on at least two continents, and only 60% are restricted to one of the three major tropical areas (nearly 100% in vascular plants). Most of the latter are found in the Neotropics, while the African Paleotropics are poor in endemics. Most genera deviate significantly from overall distribution patterns; for example, Strigula and Calopadia have higher proportions of widely distributed species, while Porina displays a concentration of Eastern Paleotropical endemics. Species diversity and composition of the six regions indicate that the three extra-tropical foliicolous lichen biotas (Valdivian, Tethyan, Neozealandic-Tasmanian) are the result of partly separate evolutionary histories. On the other hand, there is a strong affinity between the Neotropics and the African Paleotropics, suggesting a shared Western Gondwanan element in the foliicolous lichen biotas of these two regions.
The influence of environmental variables on epiphytic lichens in Liguria (NW Italy) was examined using two complementary approaches. Firstly, the variability of lichen vegetation in relation to environmental variables was investigated. Secondly, the variability of Lichen Biodiversity (LB) counts, used in biomonitoring studies, was analysed in relation to bioclimatic areas. Geomorphology strongly affects lichen vegetation. The coastal mountain ridge and the Tyrrhenian-Po valley watershed limit the distribution range of three different communities: a Parmelion community with a high frequency of coastal suboceanic species, a Parmelion community rich in oak wood species and the Pannelietum acetabuli association, situated beyond the Po Valley watershed. Substantial differences in the distribution of lichen communities related to a climatic gradient (from humid Mediterranean to dry sub-Mediterranean regions) are not matched by corresponding statistically significant differences in LB counts. More accurate studies are necessary to define homogeneous bioclimatic areas, in which LB values can be compared for biomonitoring purposes.
Biological crusts are a common feature of the soil surface in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, where they play a major role in ecosystem functioning. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the ecophysiology, floristics, and dynamics of crust-forming lichens but little is known about the effect of vascular plants on their small-scale spatial distribution. To increase our understanding about the interactions between crust-forming lichens and vegetation in semi-arid areas, the spatial pattern and interaction of two soil lichens, Cladonia convoluta and Squamarina cartilaginea, at two microsites in semi-arid Stipa tenacissima steppe of south-eastern Spain are evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine if the microsite provided by Stipa tussocks promoted changes in the individual patterns and in the spatial covariation of these soil lichens. Spatial analysis by distance index (SADIE) coupled with correlation analysis was used to explore the individual patterns and the spatial relationships between the two species. SADIE detected a significant clumped pattern in the spatial distribution of both species, but Stipa tussocks promoted changes only in the spatial pattern of Cladonia. Correlation analysis revealed the presence of significant relationships between the two species, particularly close to Stipa tussocks. The results show that the microenvironment provided by Stipa is able to modify the small-scale spatial pattern of soil lichens in semi-arid steppe, and suggest the presence of facilitation between Stipa and Cladonia.