Eighteen species in the lichen genera Acanthothecis Clem. and Fissurina Fée (Graphidaceae) with colourless, trans-septate ascospores are recorded from India. Eight new species, namely Acanthothecis collateralis, Fissurina capsulata, F. coarctata, F. karnatakensis, F. khasiana, F. longiramea, F. taeniocarpoides and F. verrucosa, and a new variety, F. dumastioides var. salazinica, are described. Fissurina saxicola ad int., clearly distinguished from the other species is recorded, but is not formally described as new to science as the material is scanty. Acanthothecis consocians, F. globulifica, F. insidiosa and F. rugosa are reported for the first time from India. A key for the trans-septate species of Acanthothecis and Fissurina in India is provided.